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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, January 2015, Vol.111, pp.263-270
    Description: Studies assessing the acute and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticle (nAg) materials rarely consider potential implications of environmental variables. In order to increase our understanding in this respect, we investigated the acute and chronic effects of various nAg materials on . Thereby, different nanoparticle size classes with a citrate coating (20-, ~30-, 60- as well as 100-nm nAg) and one size class without any coating (140 nm) were tested, considering at the same time two pH levels (6.5 and 8.0) as well as the absence or presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM; 〈0.1 or 8.0 mg total organic carbon/L). Results display a reduced toxicity of nAg in media with higher pH and the presence of DOM as well as increasing initial particle size, if similarly coated. This suggests that the associated fraction of Ag species 〈2 nm (including Ag ) is driving the nAg toxicity. This hypothesis is supported by normalizing the 48-h EC -values to Ag species 〈2 nm, which displays comparable toxicity estimates for the majority of the nAg materials assessed. It may therefore be concluded that a combination of both the particle characteristics, i.e. its initial size and surface coating, and environmental factors trigger the toxicity of ion-releasing nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanomaterial ; Silver ; Acute Toxicity ; Crustacean ; Environmental Conditions ; Ecology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0147-6513
    E-ISSN: 1090-2414
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  • 2
    In: Environmental Science: Nano, 2016, Vol.3(2), pp.418-433
    Description: Understanding of the interplay of generally known colloidal transformations under conditions of test media (TM) used during cultivation of organisms and biological effect (=ecotoxicological) studies is still limited, although this knowledge is required for an adequate interpretation of test outcomes and for a comparison among different studies. In this context, we investigated the aggregation and dissolution dynamics of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by varying the composition of three TM (ASTM, SAM-5S, and R2A, used during bioassays with Daphnia magna , Gammarus fossarum , and bacterial biofilms, respectively) in the presence and absence of two types of natural organic matter (NOM), namely, Suwanee River humic acid (SRHA) and seaweed extract (SW). Each original test medium induced reaction-limited aggregation of Ag NPs, and aggregation increased from R2A to SAM-5S and ASTM. In addition to the differences in aggregation dynamics, the concentration and speciation of Ag( i ) differed between the three TM, whereby SAM-5S and ASTM are comparable with respect to the nature of the aggregation process but clearly differ from the R2A medium. Furthermore, Cl , mainly present in SAM-5S, induced NP stabilization. The release of silver ions from Ag NPs was controlled by the presence of NOM and organic constituents of TM and by interactions with Cl and Br . The degree of aggregation, formation of interparticle cationNOM bridges or stabilization was larger for Ca 2+ than for Mg 2+ due to the stronger ability of Ca 2+ to interact with citrate or NOM compared to Mg 2+ . These observations and the dependence of aggregation rates on the particle concentration renders the interpretation of doseresponse relationships challenging, but they may open perspectives for targeted ecotoxicological testing by modifications of TM composition.
    Keywords: Bacteria ; Media ; Stabilization ; Concentration (Composition) ; Silver ; Nanoparticles ; Dynamics ; Agglomeration ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (MD) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (Ep) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (Ed) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (EC);
    ISSN: 2051-8153
    E-ISSN: 2051-8161
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, July 2019, Vol.212, pp.47-53
    Description: The increasing production of engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINPs) elevates their release into aquatic ecosystems raising concerns about associated environmental risks. Numerous investigations indicate sediments as the final sink, facilitating the exposure of benthic species to EINPs. Although reports of sub-lethal EINP effects on benthic species are increasing, the importance of exposure pathways (either waterborne or dietary) is poorly understood. This study investigates the influence of two EINPs, namely titanium dioxide (nTiO ) and silver (nAg), on the benthic model organism specifically addressing the relative relevance of these pathways. For each type of EINP an individual 30-day long bioassay was conducted, applying a two-factorial test design. The factors include the presence or absence of the EINPs (nTiO : ∼80 nm, 4 mg/L or nAg: ∼30 nm, 0.125 mg/L;  = 30) in the water phase (waterborne), combined with a preceding 6-day long aging of their diet (black alder leaves) also in presence or absence of the EINPs (dietary). Response variables were mortality, food consumption, feces production and energy assimilation. Additionally, the physiological fitness was examined using lipid content and dry weight of the organisms as measures. Results revealed a significantly reduced energy assimilation (up to ∼30%) in induced by waterborne exposure towards nTiO . In contrast, the dietary exposure towards nAg significantly increased the organisms’ energy assimilation (up to ∼50%). Hence, exposure pathway dependent effects of EINPs cannot be generalized and remain particle specific resting upon their intrinsic properties affecting their potential to interact with the surrounding environment. As a result of the different properties of the EINPs used in this study, we clearly demonstrated variations in type and direction of observed effects in . The results of the present study are thus supporting current approaches for nano-specific grouping that might enable an enhanced accuracy in predicting EINP effects facilitating their environmental risk assessment.
    Keywords: Nanomaterial ; Titanium Dioxide ; Silver ; Exposure Pathway ; Chronic Toxicity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1514
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