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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, December 2012, Vol.80(12), pp.4426-34
    Description: During microbial infection, macrophages are polarized to classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) cells in response to microbial components and host immune mediators. Proper polarization of macrophages is critical for bacterial clearance. To study the role of macrophage polarization during Haemophilus ducreyi infection, we analyzed a panel of macrophage surface markers in skin biopsy specimens of pustules obtained from experimentally infected volunteers. Lesional macrophages expressed markers characteristic of both M1 and M2 polarization. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) also expressed a mixed M1 and M2 profile of surface markers and cytokines/chemokines upon infection with H. ducreyi in vitro. Endogenous interleukin 10 (IL-10) produced by infected MDM downregulated and enhanced expression of several M1 and M2 markers, respectively. Bacterial uptake, mediated mainly by class A scavenger receptors, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways were required for H. ducreyi-induced IL-10 production in MDM. Compared to M1 cells, IL-10-polarized M2 cells displayed enhanced phagocytic activity against H. ducreyi and similar bacterial killing. Thus, IL-10-modulated macrophage polarization may contribute to H. ducreyi clearance during human infection.
    Keywords: Chancroid -- Immunology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Immunology ; Interleukin-10 -- Immunology ; Macrophage Activation -- Immunology ; Macrophages -- Classification
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, August 2013, Vol.81(8), pp.2997-3008
    Description: Recognition of microbial infection by certain intracellular pattern recognition receptors leads to the formation of a multiprotein complex termed the inflammasome. Inflammasome assembly activates caspase-1 and leads to cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-18, which help control many bacterial pathogens. However, excessive inflammation mediated by inflammasome activation can also contribute to immunopathology. Here, we investigated whether Haemophilus ducreyi, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the genital ulcer disease chancroid, activates inflammasomes in experimentally infected human skin and in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Although H. ducreyi is predominantly extracellular during human infection, several inflammasome-related components were transcriptionally upregulated in H. ducreyi-infected skin. Infection of MDM with live, but not heat-killed, H. ducreyi induced caspase-1- and caspase-5-dependent processing and secretion of IL-1β. Blockage of H. ducreyi uptake by cytochalasin D significantly reduced the amount of secreted IL-1β. Knocking down the expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC abolished IL-1β production. Consistent with NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation, blocking ATP signaling, K(+) efflux, cathepsin B activity, and lysosomal acidification all inhibited IL-1β secretion. However, inhibition of the production and function of reactive oxygen species did not decrease IL-1β production. Polarization of macrophages to classically activated M1 or alternatively activated M2 cells abrogated IL-1β secretion elicited by H. ducreyi. Our study data indicate that H. ducreyi induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation via multiple mechanisms and suggest that the heterogeneity of macrophages within human lesions may modulate inflammasome activation during human infection.
    Keywords: Carrier Proteins -- Immunology ; Chancroid -- Immunology ; Inflammasomes -- Immunology ; Macrophage Activation -- Immunology ; Macrophages -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, September 2010, Vol.78(9), pp.3898-904
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi must adapt to the environment of the human host to establish and maintain infection in the skin. Bacteria generally utilize stress response systems, such as the CpxRA two-component system, to adapt to hostile environments. CpxRA is the only obvious two-component system contained in the H. ducreyi genome and negatively regulates the lspB-lspA2 operon, which encodes proteins that enable the organism to resist phagocytosis. We constructed an unmarked, in-frame H. ducreyi cpxA deletion mutant, 35000HPDeltacpxA. In human inoculation experiments, 35000HPDeltacpxA formed papules at a rate and size that were significantly less than its parent and was unable to form pustules compared to the parent. CpxA usually has kinase and phosphatase activities for CpxR, and the deletion of CpxA leads to the accumulation of activated CpxR due to the loss of phosphatase activity and the ability of CpxR to accept phosphate groups from other donors. Using a reporter construct, the lspB-lspA2 promoter was downregulated in 35000HPDeltacpxA, confirming that CpxR was activated. Deletion of cpxA downregulated DsrA, the major determinant of serum resistance in the organism, causing the mutant to become serum susceptible. Complementation in trans restored parental phenotypes. 35000HPDeltacpxA is the first H. ducreyi mutant that is impaired in its ability to form both papules and pustules in humans. Since a major function of CpxRA is to control the flow of protein traffic across the periplasm, uncontrolled activation of this system likely causes dysregulated expression of multiple virulence determinants and cripples the ability of the organism to adapt to the host.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Physiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Protein Kinases -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(3), p.1176
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is an extracellular pathogen of human epithelial surfaces that resists human antimicrobial peptides (APs). The organism's genome contains homologs of genes sensitive to antimicrobial peptides (sap operon) in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. In this study, we characterized the sap-containing loci of H. ducreyi 35000HP and demonstrated that sapA is expressed in broth cultures and H. ducreyi-infected tissue; sapA is also conserved among both class I and class II H. ducreyi strains. We constructed a nonpolar sapA mutant of H. ducreyi 35000HP, designated 35000HPsapA, and compared the percent survival of wild-type 35000HP and 35000HPsapA exposed to several human APs, including alpha-defensins, beta-defensins, and the cathelicidin LL-37. Unlike an H. influenzae sapA mutant, strain 35000HPsapA was not more susceptible to defensins than strain 35000HP was. However, we observed a significant decrease in the survival of strain 35000HPsapA after exposure to LL-37, which was complemented by introducing sapA in trans. Thus, the Sap transporter plays a role in resistance of H. ducreyi to LL-37. We next compared mutant strain 35000HPsapA with strain 35000HP for their ability to cause disease in human volunteers. Although both strains caused papules to form at similar rates, the pustule formation rate at sites inoculated with 35000HPsapA was significantly lower than that of sites inoculated with 35000HP (33.3% versus 66.7%; P = 0.007). Together, these data establish that SapA acts as a virulence factor and as one mechanism for H. ducreyi to resist killing by antimicrobial peptides. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that an antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanism contributes to bacterial virulence in humans.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    In: Infection and Immunity, 1999, Vol. 67(5), p.2649
    Description: We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based assay to assess Haemophilus ducreyi binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. H. ducreyi 35000HP bound to fibronectin, laminin, and type I and III collagen but not to type IV, V, or VI collagen or elastin. Isogenic strains with mutations in ftpA or losB bound as well as the parent, suggesting that neither pili nor full-length lipooligosaccharide is required for H. ducreyi to bind to ECM proteins.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 August 2009, Vol.200(3), pp.409-16
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP contains a homologue of the luxS gene, which encodes an enzyme that synthesizes autoinducer 2 (AI-2) in other gram-negative bacteria. H. ducreyi 35000HP produced AI-2 that functioned in a Vibrio harveyi-based reporter system. A H. ducreyi luxS mutant was constructed by insertional inactivation of the luxS gene and lost the ability to produce AI-2. Provision of the H. ducreyi luxS gene in trans partially restored AI-2 production by the mutant. The luxS mutant was compared with its parent for virulence in the human challenge model of experimental chancroid. The pustule-formation rate in 5 volunteers was 93.3% (95% confidence interval, 81.7%-99.9%) at 15 parent sites and 60.0% (95% confidence interval, 48.3%-71.7%) at 15 mutant sites (1-tailed P 〈 .001). Thus, the luxS mutant was partially attenuated for virulence. This is the first report of AI-2 production contributing to the pathogenesis of a genital ulcer disease.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Carbon-Sulfur Lyases -- Metabolism ; Chancroid -- Microbiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 7
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(4), p.2549
    Description: In a previous study, Haemophilus ducreyi was found in the pustule and dermis of samples obtained at the clinical end point in the human model of infection. To understand the kinetics of localization, we examined infected sites at 0, 24, and 48 h after inoculation and at the clinical end point. Immediately after inoculation, bacteria were found predominantly in the dermis but also in the epidermis. Few bacteria were detectable at 24 h; however, by 48 h, bacteria were readily seen in the pustule and dermis. H. ducreyi was associated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages in the pustule and at its base, but was not associated with T cells, Langerhans' cells, or fibroblasts. H. ducreyi colocalized with collagen and fibrin but not laminin or fibronectin. Association with phagocytes, collagen, and fibrin was seen as early as 48 h and persisted at the pustular stage of disease. Optical sectioning by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy both failed to demonstrate intracellular H. ducreyi. These data identify collagen and fibrin as potentially important targets of adherence in vivo and strongly suggest that H. ducreyi remains extracellular throughout infection and survives by resisting phagocytic killing in vivo.
    Keywords: Bacterial Adhesion ; Collagen -- Physiology ; Fibrin -- Physiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Physiology ; Phagocytes -- Microbiology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Blood, 01 March 2003, Vol.101(5), pp.1677-82
    Description: The chemokine receptors (CCRs) CCR4 and CCR10, and the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA), have each been proposed as critical mediators of skin-specific TH lymphocyte homing in mice and humans. CLA initiates skin homing by mediating E-selectin-dependent tethering and rolling within cutaneous venules, but the specific roles of CCR4 and CCR10 are unclear. We have generated an antihuman CCR10 monoclonal antibody (mAb; 1B5) to illuminate the individual contributions of these molecules. This mAb allows us to compare CCR10, CCR4, and CLA expression within human TH populations. The mAb 1B5 recognizes functional CCR10 expression, as chemotactic responsiveness to cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27 (a CCR10 ligand) parallels the staining of TH subsets. We find CCR10 expressed by only a minority (approximately 30%) of blood-borne, skin-homing (CLA+/CCR4+) TH cells. However, essentially all members of the relatively small "effector" (CLA+/CCR4+/CD27-/CCR7-) skin-homing TH population express CCR10. Most skin-infiltrating lymphocytes in allergic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and bacterial chancroid skin lesions express both CCR4 and CLA, but only about 10% express CCR10. This suggests for the 2 models of TH skin homing studied here that CCR10+ TH cells have no advantage over other CLA+/CCR4+ TH cells in homing to cutaneous sites. We conclude that the skin-homing TH compartment is itself divided into distinct subpopulations, the smaller of which expresses both CCR4 and CCR10, and the larger of which expresses only CCR4. Thus, CCR10 is unlikely to be necessary for cutaneous homing of TH cells in the models studied here. CCR10 may instead play a role in the movement of specialized "effector" cutaneous TH cells to and/or within epidermal microenvironments.
    Keywords: Chemotaxis, Leukocyte -- Physiology ; Receptors, Chemokine -- Physiology ; Skin -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer -- Cytology ; Transcription Factors -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-4971
    E-ISSN: 15280020
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  • 9
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2008, Vol. 76(4), p.1608
    Description: The ability to bind extracellular matrix proteins is a critical virulence determinant for skin pathogens. Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiological agent of the genital ulcer disease chancroid, binds extracellular matrix components, including fibronectin (FN). We investigated H. ducreyi FN binding and report several important findings about this interaction. First, FN binding by H. ducreyi was greatly increased in bacteria grown on heme and almost completely inhibited by hemoglobin. Second, wild-type strain 35000HP bound significantly more FN than did a dsrA mutant in two different FN binding assays. Third, the expression of dsrA in the dsrA mutant restored FN binding and conferred the ability to bind FN to a non-FN-binding Haemophilus influenzae strain. Fourth, an anti-DsrA monoclonal antibody partially blocked FN binding by H. ducreyi. The hemoglobin receptor, the collagen-binding protein, the H. ducreyi lectin, the fine-tangle pili, and the outer membrane protein OmpA2 were not involved in H. ducreyi FN binding, since single mutants bound FN as well as the parent strain did. However, the major outer membrane protein may have a minor role in FN binding by H. ducreyi, since a double dsrA momp mutant bound less FN than did the single dsrA mutant. Finally, despite major sequence differences, DsrA proteins from both class I and class II H. ducreyi strains mediated FN and vitronectin binding. We concluded that DsrA is the major factor involved in FN binding by both classes of H. ducreyi strains.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 10
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2006, Vol. 74(2), p.1394
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi produces two outer membrane proteins, called DltA (H. ducreyi lectin A) and DsrA (H. ducreyi serum resistance A), that contribute to the ability of the organism to evade complement-mediated serum killing. In contrast to their isogenic parent strain, 35000HP, the DsrA mutant FX517 exhibits 0% survival in 50% normal human serum and the DltA mutant FX533 exhibits 23% survival. Compared to 35000HP, FX517 does not cause pustule formation in human volunteers. To test whether DltA was required for virulence in humans, seven volunteers were experimentally infected with 35000HP and FX533. Four subjects were inoculated with fixed doses of 35000HP (101 CFU or 130 CFU) at three sites on one arm and escalating doses of FX533 (range, 46 CFU to 915 CFU) at three sites on the other arm. Pustules only developed at mutant-injected sites at doses nearly twofold higher than that of the parent, suggesting that FX533 was partially attenuated. Three subjects were inoculated with similar doses of the parent (67 CFU) and mutant (104 CFU) at three sites. Pustules formed at five of nine parent sites and one of nine mutant sites. Overall, the papule and pustule formation rates for 35000HP and FX533 were similar for the trial. However, for the five subjects who received similar doses of the parent and mutant, pustules developed at 7 of 15 sites (46.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 76.5%) inoculated with the parent and at 1 of 15 (6.7%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 18.4%) sites inoculated with the mutant (P = 0.043). We concluded that the DltA mutant was attenuated in its ability to cause disease at doses similar to that of the parent.
    Keywords: Mutation ; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins -- Genetics ; Chancroid -- Pathology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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