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  • Soil Organic Carbon
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2015, Vol.536, pp.1045-1051
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.064 Byline: Martin Wiesmeier [wiesmeier@wzw.tum.de] (a,*), Rico Hubner (b), Ingrid Kogel-Knabner (a,c) Keywords Soil organic carbon; Climate change; Net primary productivity; Soil C input Highlights * C stocks in agricultural soils may be largely affected by climate change. * It is assumed that C stocks would increase due to an assumed increase of NPP. * However, crop statistics indicate stagnating yields of major crops since the 1990s. * Concurrently stagnating C inputs would lead to C decreases in the long-term. * Indications for declining agricultural C stocks were already found. Abstract The carbon (C) balance of agricultural soils may be largely affected by climate change. Increasing temperatures are discussed to cause a loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) due to enhanced decomposition of soil organic matter, which has a high intrinsic temperature sensitivity. On the other hand, several modeling studies assumed that potential SOC losses would be compensated or even outperformed by an increased C input by crop residues into agricultural soils. This assumption was based on a predicted general increase of net primary productivity (NPP) as a result of the CO.sub.2 fertilization effect and prolonged growing seasons. However, it is questionable if the crop C input into agricultural soils can be derived from NPP predictions of vegetation models. The C input in European croplands is largely controlled by the agricultural management and was strongly related to the development of crop yields in the last decades. Thus, a glance at past yield development will probably be more instructive for future estimations of the C input than previous modeling approaches based on NPP predictions. An analysis of European yield statistics indicated that yields of wheat, barley and maize are stagnating in Central and Northern Europe since the 1990s. The stagnation of crop yields can probably be related to a fundamental change of the agricultural management and to climate change effects. It is assumed that the soil C input is concurrently stagnating which would necessarily lead to a decrease of agricultural SOC stocks in the long-term given a constant temperature increase. Remarkably, for almost all European countries that are faced with yield stagnation indications for agricultural SOC decreases were already found. Potentially adverse effects of yield stagnation on the C balance of croplands call for an interdisciplinary investigation of its causes and a comprehensive monitoring of SOC stocks in agricultural soils of Europe. Author Affiliation: (a) Lehrstuhl fur Bodenkunde, Department fur Okologie und Okosystemmanagement, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fur Ernahrung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (b) Lehrstuhl fur Strategie und Management der Landschaftsentwicklung, Department fur Okologie und Okosystemmanagement, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan fur Ernahrung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Technische Universitat Munchen, 85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany (c) Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitat Munchen, Lichtenbergstr. 2a, 85748 Garching, Germany * Corresponding author. Article History: Received 23 April 2015; Revised 12 July 2015; Accepted 13 July 2015 (miscellaneous) Editor: D. Barcelo
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Climate Change ; Net Primary Productivity ; Soil C Input ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, October 2015, Vol.21(10), pp.3836-3845
    Description: Organic carbon () sequestration in degraded semi‐arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the soil organic carbon () sequestration potential in steppe soils and their current saturation status remains unknown. In this study, we estimated the storage capacity of semi‐arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe fragments in northern China. Based on the maximum saturation of silt and clay particles 〈20 μm, sequestration potentials of degraded steppe soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the estimated storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high saturation of 78–85% despite massive losses due to unsustainable land use. As a result, the potential of degraded grassland soils to sequester additional was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile , which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and consequently results in a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional . Our findings indicate that the loss in semi‐arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile prone to land use/climate changes and therefore cannot be regarded as contribution to long‐term sequestration.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Fine Fraction ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Texture ; Steppe Soils
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest ecology and management, 2013, Vol.295, pp.162-172
    Description: Temperate forest soils of central Europe are regarded as important pools for soil organic carbon (SOC) and thought to have a high potential for carbon (C) sequestration. However, comprehensive data on total SOC storage, particularly under different forest types, and its drivers is limited. In this study, we analyzed a forest data set of 596 completely sampled soil profiles down to the parent material or to a depth of 1m within Bavaria in southeast Germany in order to determine representative SOC stocks under different forest types in central Europe and the impact of different environmental parameters. We calculated a total median SOC stock of 9.8kgm⁻² which is considerably lower compared with many other inventories within central Europe that used modelled instead of measured soil properties. Statistical analyses revealed climate as controlling parameter for the storage of SOC with increasing stocks in cool, humid mountainous regions and a strong decrease in areas with higher temperatures. No significant differences of total SOC storage were found between broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests. However, coniferous forests stored around 35% of total SOC in the labile organic layer that is prone to human disturbance, forest fires and rising temperatures. In contrast, mixed and broadleaf forests stored the major part of SOC in the mineral soil. Moreover, these two forest types showed unchanged or even slightly increased mineral SOC stocks with higher temperatures, whereas SOC stocks in mineral soils under coniferous forest were distinctly lower. We conclude that mixed and broadleaf forests are more advantageous for C sequestration than coniferous forests. An intensified incorporation of broadleaf species in extent coniferous forests of Bavaria would prevent substantial SOC losses as a result of rising temperatures in the course of climate change. ; p. 162-172.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Coniferous Forests ; Parents ; Carbon Sequestration ; Soil Profiles ; Mineral Soils ; Environmental Impact ; Statistical Analysis ; Climate Change ; Temperature ; Temperate Soils ; Inventories ; Soil Properties ; Carbon ; Forest Fires ; Climate
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 2013, Vol.176, pp.39-52
    Description: Agricultural soils have a high potential for sequestration of atmospheric carbon due to their volume and several promising management options. However, there is a remarkable lack of information about the status quo of organic carbon in agricultural soils. In this study a comprehensive data set of 384 cropland soils and 333 grassland soils within the state of Bavaria in southeast Germany was analyzed in order to provide representative information on total amount, regional distribution and driving parameters of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) in agricultural soils of central Europe. The results showed that grassland soils stored higher amounts of SOC (11.8kgm⁻²) and N (0.92kgm⁻²) than cropland soils (9.0 and 0.66kgm⁻², respectively) due to moisture-induced accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) in B horizons. Surprisingly, no distinct differences were found for the A horizons since tillage led to a relocation of SOM with depth in cropland soils. Statistical analyses of driving factors for SOM storage revealed soil moisture, represented by the topographic wetness index (TWI), as the most important parameter for both cropland and grassland soils. Climate effects (mean annual temperature and precipitation) were of minor importance in agricultural soils because management options counteracted them to a certain extent, particularly in cropland soils. The distribution of SOC and N stocks within Bavaria based on agricultural regions confirmed the importance of soil moisture since the highest cropland SOC and N stocks were found for tertiary hills and loess regions, which exhibited large areas with potentially high soil moisture content in extant floodplains. Grassland soils showed the highest accumulation of SOC and N in the Alps and Pre-Alps as a result of low temperatures, high amounts of precipitation and high soil moisture content in areas of glacial denudation. Soil class was identified as a further driving parameter for SOC and N storage in cropland soils. In total, cropland and grassland soils in Bavaria store 242 and 134Mt SOC as well as 19 and 12Mt N down to a soil depth of 1m or the parent material, respectively. ; p. 39-52.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; A Horizons ; Hills ; Parents ; Soil Water Content ; Carbon Sequestration ; Agricultural Soils ; Floodplains ; Statistical Analysis ; Agricultural Land ; Atmospheric Precipitation ; Temperature ; Nitrogen ; Soil Water ; Soil Depth ; B Horizons ; Grassland Soils ; Tillage ; Climate
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2012, Vol.48(3), pp.305-313
    Description: Soil labile organic carbon (C) oxidation drives the flux of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) between soils and the atmosphere. However, the impact of grazing management and the contribution soil aggregate size classes (ASCs) to labile organic C from grassland soils is unclear. We evaluated the effects of grazing intensity and soil ASC on the soil labile organic C, including CO 2 production, microbial biomass C, and dissolved organic C and nitrogen (N) mineralization in topsoils (0–10 cm) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Soil samples were separated into ASCs of 0–630 μm [fine ASC (fASC)], 630–2000 μm [medium ASC (mASC)] and 〉2000 μm [coarse ASC (cASC)]. The results showed that heavy grazing (HG) and continuous grazing (CG) increased soil labile organic C significantly compared to an ungrazed site since 1999 (UG99) and an ungrazed site since 1979 (UG79). For winter grazing site (WG), no significant differences were found. CO 2 production was highest in cASC, while lowest in fASC. Microbial biomass C and dissolved organic C showed the highest values in mASC and were significantly lower in fASC. Grazing increased N mineralization in bulk soils, while it exhibited complex effects in the three ASCs. The results suggest that the rate of C mineralization was related to the rate of N accumulation. To reduce CO 2 emission and nutrient loss, and to improve soil quality and productivity, a grazing system with moderate intensity is suggested.
    Keywords: Soil organic carbon ; Microbial biomass carbon ; Dissolved organic carbon ; Semiarid grassland ; Inner Mongolia
    ISSN: 0178-2762
    E-ISSN: 1432-0789
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biology and Fertility of Soils, 4/2012, Vol.48(3), pp.305-313
    Description: Soil labile organic carbon (C) oxidation drives the flux of carbon dioxide (CO sub(2)) between soils and the atmosphere. However, the impact of grazing management and the contribution soil aggregate size classes (ASCs) to labile organic C from grassland soils is unclear. We evaluated the effects of grazing intensity and soil ASC on the soil labile organic C, including CO sub(2) production, microbial biomass C, and dissolved organic C and nitrogen (N) mineralization in topsoils (0-10 cm) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Soil samples were separated into ASCs of 0-630 mu m [fine ASC (fASC)], 630-2000 mu m [medium ASC (mASC)] and 〉2000 mu m [coarse ASC (cASC)]. The results showed that heavy grazing (HG) and continuous grazing (CG) increased soil labile organic C significantly compared to an ungrazed site since 1999 (UG99) and an ungrazed site since 1979 (UG79). For winter grazing site (WG), no significant differences were found. CO sub(2) production was highest in cASC, while lowest in fASC. Microbial biomass C and dissolved organic C showed the highest values in mASC and were significantly lower in fASC. Grazing increased N mineralization in bulk soils, while it exhibited complex effects in the three ASCs. The results suggest that the rate of C mineralization was related to the rate of N accumulation. To reduce CO sub(2) emission and nutrient loss, and to improve soil quality and productivity, a grazing system with moderate intensity is suggested.
    Keywords: Soil ; Grasslands ; Carbon ; Grazing ; Oxidation ; Soils (Organic) ; Biomass ; Mineralization ; Carbon Dioxide ; Atmosphere ; Nutrient Loss ; Nitrogen ; Ecosystem and Ecology Studies;
    ISSN: 0178-2762
    E-ISSN: 1432-0789
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil & Tillage Research, March 2015, Vol.146, pp.296-302
    Description: Numerous studies have reported substantial changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks after converting forests into agricultural land and vice versa. However, some studies suggested that agricultural soils might contain similar amounts of SOC as forest soils. Losses of SOC induced by cultivation might be overestimated due to shallow soil sampling and application of inaccurate pedotransfer functions. We investigated the impact of different land uses on total SOC storage down to the subsoil on the basis of 270 soil profiles in southeast Germany under similar climatic and pedogenic conditions using an equivalent soil mass (ESM) approach. Land use effects on SOC storage were strongly affected by soil class, which comprised soil types with similar pedogenesis. Both slightly lower (〈20%) and even higher SOC stocks were found under cropland compared with forest land for different soil classes. A comparison of different soil classes under grassland and forest land also showed no considerable differences of SOC stocks. Soil cultivation may not generally be associated with a strong decline of SOC, as tillage probably promotes the formation of organo-mineral associations and a relocation of SOC with depth may decrease its decomposition. This finding should be taken into consideration when estimating and managing the emission and sequestration of C in soils. We assume that many studies based on topsoils alone may have underestimated agricultural SOC stocks, particularly when an ESM approach is used. Our results highlight the need for soil type-specific evaluations in terms of interpreting the effects of land use management on SOC stocks.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Carbon Sequestration ; Land Use Change ; Equivalent Soil Mass ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    E-ISSN: 1879-3444
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma Regional, September 2014, Vol.1, pp.67-78
    Description: Precise estimations of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks at large spatial scales are a precondition for national SOC inventories but challenging due to the high spatial variability of SOC. In this study, a comprehensive data set of 1460 soil profiles completely sampled down to the parent material or at least to a depth of 1 m was used to spatially predict SOC stocks for the state of Bavaria in southeast Germany using a geostatistical modeling approach. The model predicted SOC stocks of the main land uses cropland, grassland and forest with an explained variance of 52% of the total SOC variability within Bavaria. The most important factors, which control the spatial variability of SOC storage, were land use, soil type, soil moisture (indicated by the topographic wetness index) and climate (precipitation, temperature). An analysis of the generated SOC map showed that low to medium SOC stocks within the largest part of Bavaria were explained by land use whereas areas of high SOC stocks in floodplains along rivers, bogs and mountainous regions in the Alps and low mountain ranges were related to soil moisture, soil type and climate. A total SOC stock of 760 Mt was calculated for Bavaria with 223 Mt (29%) in cropland soils, 125 Mt (16%) in grassland soils, 257 Mt (34%) in forest soils, 7–29 Mt (1–4%) in bogs and 159 Mt (21%) under other land uses. In view of high SOC stocks in floodplains and mountainous areas, major anthropogenic disturbances of respective soils (e.g. intensification of the land use) should be avoided in these regions.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Organic Matter ; Albeluvisol ; Cambisol ; Fluvisol ; Gleysol ; Histosol ; Leptosol ; Luvisol ; Planosol ; Podzol ; Regosol ; Stagnosol ; Vertisol
    ISSN: 2352-0094
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Agronomy, November 2014, Vol.61, pp.10-23
    Description: In agricultural soils, the formation of soil organic matter largely depends on the carbon (C) input by crop residues and rhizodeposition, which is thus of decisive importance for the management and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in cropland and grassland. However, there is a remarkable lack of reliable, crop-specific C input data. We used a plant C allocation approach to estimate the C input of major crops and grassland into agricultural soils of Bavaria in southeast Germany. Historic and recent plant C allocation coefficients were estimated and C inputs were calculated for a 60-year period (1951–2010) using long-term agricultural statistics. The spatial distribution of C inputs within Bavaria was derived from county-specific statistical data. The results revealed increases of the C input by 107–139% for cereals, 173–188% for root, forage and leguminous crops and 34% for grassland in the last 60 years. This increase was related to linear yield increases until 1995 despite significant changes of plant C allocation. However, from 1995 onwards, crop yields and related C inputs stagnated, which allowed a robust estimation of recent crop-specific C input values. A total C input of 3.8–6.7 t ha yr was estimated for cereals, 5.2–6.3 t ha yr for root, forage and leguminous crops and 2.4 t ha yr for grassland. These amounts were partly higher compared to estimations in the literature. A generally high spatial variability of C inputs was detected within Bavaria with differences of up to 40% between adjacent counties. The results of this study could be used to optimize the C input of crop rotations and thus promote the formation of soil organic matter and C sequestration in agricultural soils on the basis of a soil carbon model. Moreover, recent estimations of C inputs could be used to model the future development of agricultural SOC stocks. A further stagnation of crop yields and the related C input under an ongoing temperature increase bears the risk of a future decrease of SOC stocks in cropland soils of Bavaria.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Climate Change ; Crop Yield ; Root-to-Shoot Ratio ; Harvest Index ; Rhizodeposition ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1161-0301
    E-ISSN: 1873-7331
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, October 2019, Vol.182(5), pp.772-781
    Description: Archived soil samples are a valuable tool for any long‐term soil research. We analysed total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content and soil organic matter fractions in 38 archived soil samples that were stored for up to 21 years and compared air‐dried storage to frozen storage conditions. Samples include top‐ and upper subsoils, different soil texture and land use with C contents between 4.3 and 174 mg g. The results from this study reveal no changes in total C and N contents with storage time up to 21 years or type of storage (freezing . air drying). The analyses of soil physical fractions also revealed no significant differences between air‐dried stored and frozen stored samples for most samples. However, we found indications, that freezing of soil material might lead to changes in the mineral fractions for soils containing high amounts of water. Therefore, and as archiving soils in a frozen state is more expensive than storing air‐dried samples, we recommend the use of air‐dried samples for C quality analyses of archived soil samples.
    Keywords: Density Fractionation ; Long‐Term Experiments ; Soil Archive ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Storage Conditions
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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