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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 January 2016, Vol.359, pp.74-82
    Description: Harvesting and logging with heavy forest machines cause soil damage that may restrict forest soil functions. Although the recovery ability of compacted forest soils depends on the soil properties, little is known about the long-term structure recovery of different soils following forest operations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the soil structure recovery of three different soil types. Therefore, we applied a space-for-time substitution approach (10, 20, 30 and 40 years after the last machine impact) to study selected sites in Lower Saxony, Germany, using the following as proxies: bulk density, carbon dioxide (CO ) concentration in soil gas, and the relative apparent gas diffusion coefficient ( / ). At sites with high biological activity and high clay content (Cambisols on limestone), recovery occurred 10–20 years after last traffic impact. At these sites, 10 years after the last traffic impact, gas diffusivity at the wheel track was half of the gas diffusivity of the undisturbed soil, and soil gas CO concentrations were significantly higher at the wheel tracks. At the 20-, 30-, and 40-year-old skid trails, there were no significant differences between the untrafficked reference and the soil frequented by vehicles. Regardless of the kind of traffic impact (wheel track, mid line, side strip or undisturbed reference soil), all investigated parameters indicated that soil structure becomes more favourable with increasing time since the last forest interference. In contrast, loamy sandy soils (Podzols on glacial drift and sand) showed low recovery ability. Forty years after the last machine impact, gas diffusivity was still significantly reduced at the wheel track. Cambisols at loess-covered sandstone showed neither strong impact of forest traffic on soil structure nor changes in soil structure 20–40 years after last traffic impact. In general, bulk density turned out not to be a sufficient proxy for soil structure recovery.
    Keywords: Soil Gas Diffusivity ; Soil Carbon Dioxide ; Soil Compaction ; Soil Structure Recovery ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 November 2015, Vol.356, pp.136-143
    Description: Phosphorus is an essential yet scarce macronutrient, and as such forest nutrition often relies on cycling of P between biomass and soils through litterfall and roots. For technical and soil protection reasons, modern harvesting systems create thick brash mats on skid trails by depositing residues, thus concentrating P there. What portion of this redistributed P is immobilized, lost, or recycled could be significant to forest nutrition and management. However, open questions exist regarding the quantity and fate of P deposited on skid trials. The aim of this study was to determine how much P is redistributed to skid trails and what happens to that P. We modeled the amount of P deposited on a skid trail during a whole-tree thinning of an Mill. stand, and quantified P stocks in the forest floor and mineral soil five years after the operation. An estimated 60% of harvested P from the encatchment was deposited on the skid trail. Five years after the harvest, forest floor P stocks in the skid trail dropped from an extrapolated 8.9 to 4.4 g m . The difference of 4.5 g m of P was not evident in mineral soil stocks, and loss through runoff or leaching would be minimal. With the greatest concentration of roots in the forest floor on the middle of the skid trail, mineralization and uptake of the missing P was the most likely explanation. This suggests that accumulated P on skid trails can be recycled through uptake by trees. Further testing in other stands and on which vegetation takes up accumulated P is still needed.
    Keywords: Nutrient Cycling ; Plant Uptake ; Whole-Tree Harvesting ; Brash Mats ; Allometric Modeling ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 2010, Vol.87(1), pp.11-20
    Description: Visual traces of iron reduction and oxidation are linked to the redox status of soils and have been used to characterise the quality of agricultural soils. We tested whether this feature could also be used to explain the spatial pattern of the natural vegetation of tidal habitats. If so, an easy assessment of the effect of rising sea level on tidal ecosystems would be possible. Our study was conducted at the salt marshes of the northern lagoon of Venice, which are strongly threatened by erosion and rising sea level and are part of the world heritage “Venice and its lagoon”. We analysed the abundance of plant species at 255 sampling points along a land–sea gradient. In addition, we surveyed the redox morphology (presence/absence of red iron oxide mottles in the greyish topsoil horizons) of the soils and the presence of disturbances. We used indicator species analysis, correlation trees and multivariate regression trees to analyse relations between soil properties and plant species distribution. Plant species with known sensitivity to anaerobic conditions (e.g. ) were identified as indicators for oxic soils (showing iron oxide mottles within a greyish soil matrix). Plant species that tolerate a low redox potential (e.g. ) were identified as indicators for anoxic soils (greyish matrix without oxide mottles). Correlation trees and multivariate regression trees indicate the dominant role of the redox morphology of the soils in plant species distribution. In addition, the distance from the mainland and the presence of disturbances were identified as tree-splitting variables. The small-scale variation of oxygen availability plays a key role for the biodiversity of salt marsh ecosystems. Our results suggest that the redox morphology of salt marsh soils indicates the plant availability of oxygen. Thus, the consideration of this indicator may enable an understanding of the heterogeneity of biological processes in oxygen-limited systems and may be a sensitive and easy-to-use tool to assess human impacts on salt marsh ecosystems.
    Keywords: Coastal Wetlands ; Iron Oxides ; Halophyte Ecology ; Regression Trees ; Indicator Species Analysis ; Classification of Marsh Soils ; Biology ; Oceanography
    ISSN: 0272-7714
    E-ISSN: 1096-0015
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  • 4
    In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water, November 2017, Vol.4(6), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: We review the state‐of‐the‐art of cross‐disciplinary knowledge on phosphorus (P) cycling in temperate forest ecosystems, focused at studies from hydrology, biology, biogeochemistry, soil‐, and geosciences. Changes in soil P stocks during long‐term ecosystem development are addressed briefly; the general ranges of specific P pools and P fluxes within the ecosystem and the presumed underlying processes are covered more in depth. Wherever possible, we differentiate between coniferous and deciduous forests. As the most important P pools, mineral soil, forest floor, vegetation, and microbial biomass are described in terms of pool size, molecular composition, and turnover. Litterfall, soil water seepage, atmospheric deposition, and biotic uptake as the most studied P fluxes in the forest ecosystem are discussed in detail, spotlighting biogeochemical processes relevant for mobilization and retention of P in the rooting zone. Through a meta‐analysis of available literature, we build a dataset that allows the quantification of major P‐cycle components in temperate forests in terms of range and distribution, highlighting similarities and differences between coniferous and deciduous forests. The two forest types are notably distinct in their distribution of P within compartments of the plant biomass and forest floor. The possibility to construct closed local P balances is often hindered by missing information on fluxes of dissolved and particulate P across the ecosystem boundary, be it in the atmosphere, soil, or on the surface. These fluxes are irregular in space and time and feature large overall mass fluxes but comparatively small P fluxes, making the latter one difficult to quantify. 2017, 4:e1243. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1243 This article is categorized under: A schematic respresentation of the Phosphorus cycle in temperate forests. Pools and fluxes are scaled to their average size. See the full paper for more detailed information and data sources.
    Keywords: Phosphorus Cycle ; Phosphorus ; Phosphorus Cycle ; Compartments ; Phosphorus ; Uptake ; Biogeochemistry ; Biomass ; Plant Biomass ; Environmental Changes ; Soil Water ; Pools ; Soil Water ; Distribution ; Composition ; Forests ; Phosphorus Cycle ; Biogeochemistry ; Biogeochemistry ; Biomass ; Biology ; Phosphorus ; Forests ; Microorganisms ; Ecosystems ; Moisture Content ; Forest Floor ; Forest Ecosystems ; Forests ; Stocks ; Hydrology ; Forests ; Rooting ; Pools ; Seepage ; Components ; Hydrology ; Deciduous Forests ; Forest Floor ; Fluxes ; Atmospheric Pollutant Deposition ; Soils ; Hydrology ; Seepage ; Biomass ; Hydrology ; Forest Biomass;
    ISSN: 2049-1948
    E-ISSN: 2049-1948
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2013, Vol.13(3), pp.606-615
    Description: Byline: Horst Schonsky (1), Andre Peters (1), Friederike Lang (2), Stefan Abel (1), Beate Mekiffer (3), Gerd Wessolek (1) Keywords: Column experiment; Construction rubble; Numerical modeling; Sulfate; Urban soil Abstract: Purpose In Berlin and many other cities, technogenic soil substrates from World War II and building and construction debris, in general, play an important role for soil formation and solute transport in the vadose zone. The largest debris landfill in Berlin is the Teufelsberg. Sulfate release from the landfill poses threats to groundwater quality. The scope of this study is to determine and model the processes controlling sulfate release from soils containing construction rubble. Materials and methods Column leaching experiments were conducted to analyze sulfate mobilization from Teufelsberg topsoil material. Flow interruptions of 1 and 7 days were applied. Sulfate release was modeled using a geochemical simulation tool (HP1). The model considered water flux, solute transport, and precipitation/dissolution with first-order kinetics. Results and discussion Sulfate release increased after flow interruptions, although bromide breakthrough indicated physical equilibrium of transport processes. Hence, kinetically limited solution/dissolution of sulfate is assumed. The model was applicable for qualitative description of our experimental results. The estimated equilibrium concentrations of sulfate were one to two orders of magnitude smaller than expected according to the equilibrium constant of gypsum. Conclusions It is assumed that the mobilization and transport of sulfate from debris soil material can be described by an effective model. If sulfate release and transport from soils containing debris is modeled using literature values of thermodynamic constants for gypsum, sulfate concentrations will be overestimated by one to two orders of magnitude. Author Affiliation: (1) Fachgebiet Standortkunde und Bodenschutz, Technische Universitat Berlin, Ernst Reuter Platz 1, 10587, Berlin, Germany (2) Institut fur Bodenkunde und Waldernahrungslehre, Albert Ludwig Universitat Freiburg, Bertoldstr. 17, 79085, Freiburg i.Br., Germany (3) WISTA-MANAGEMENT GMBH, Rudower Chaussee 17, 12489, Berlin, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 01/10/2012 Received Date: 12/12/2011 Accepted Date: 01/10/2012 Online Date: 19/10/2012 Article note: Responsible editor: Jean Louis Morel
    Keywords: Column experiment ; Construction rubble ; Numerical modeling ; Sulfate ; Urban soil
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Geomorphology, 01 June 2014, Vol.214, pp.157-167
    Description: Sediment trapping and organic carbon (OC) accretion in soil are crucial ecosystem services of floodplain forests. However, interactions between the two processes have scarcely been analyzed at the ecosystem level. This study aimed at quantifying OC accretion parameters (CAP, including sedimentation rate, OC concentration, OC accretion) over roughly the last 50 years on both sides of a dike in a Danubian floodplain forest in Austria. Additionally, we determined soil OC stocks (0–100 cm in depth) and modeled both CAP and OC stocks in relation to environmental parameters. Overall, mean sedimentation rate and OC accretion of the riparian forest were 0.8 cm y and 3.3 t OC ha y and significantly higher in flooded riparian forest (FRF; 1.0 cm y and 4.1 t OC ha y ) than in diked riparian forest (DRF; 0.3 cm y and 1.5 t OC ha y ). In contrast, mean OC concentration (0.05 t OC m ) and OC stocks (238 t OC ha ) were significantly higher in the DRF than in FRF (0.05 vs. 0.04 t OC m and 286 vs. 201 t OC ha ). Modeling revealed tree species, fluctuation of groundwater table, and the distance to the river as valuable indicators for OC accretion rate. The OC concentration and distance to the river were positively and sedimentation negatively correlated with OC stock. The dike was consistently ruled out as a significant predictor variable. Consequently, differences among FRF and DRF seem to be related rather to longer term processes during the last centuries than directly to the dike. Our findings highlight the relevance of sediment quality (i.e., OC concentration) for building up long-term soil OC stocks, whereas sediment quantity is the main driver of recent OC accretion rates.
    Keywords: Carbon Accretion Rate ; Carbon Stock ; Dendrogeomorphology ; Dike ; Floodplain Forest ; Sedimentation Rate ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0169-555X
    E-ISSN: 1872-695X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Catena, April 2016, Vol.139, pp.9-18
    Description: Riparian woodlands consist of different landscape units characterized by different hydroecomorphological site conditions that are reflected in the distribution of soils and tree species. These conditions are determined by flooding frequency and duration, distance to river channels, elevation and water flow velocity. The influence of these environmental drivers on the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) has as yet not been investigated. Hence, the aim of our study is to link soil formation and its drivers with stabilizing processes of SOM in riparian floodplain forests. We investigated soils and sediments at two sites in the ash–maple–elm–oak alluvial forest zone (AMEO sites) and two sites in the willow-poplar alluvial forest zone (WiP sites) within the riparian zone of the Danube near Vienna (Austria). Sediments and soils were characterized based on texture, contents of organic carbon (OC), nitrogen, Fe oxides, and soil pH. Density fractionation was used to separate OC fractions in terms of stabilization process and resulting organic matter (OM) turnover time: the free light fraction (fast turnover), the light fraction occluded in aggregates (intermediate turnover) and the heavy fraction of OM associated tightly to mineral surfaces (slow turnover). At both sites, soil and sediment properties reflect the hydroecomorphological site conditions for formation of the landscape units in the riparian zone: Soils at AMEO sites develop during constant deposition of fine-textured sediment while water flow velocity is low. Progressing soil development causes a continuous decrease in OC content with increasing soil depth, mainly from fractions with fast and intermediate turnover. As a consequence the heavy fraction clearly dominates with around 90% of OC. Temporally variable flooding conditions with occurring turbulences found at WiP sites result in a discontinuous change of soil properties with increasing soil depth. Former topsoil horizons buried by huge amounts of sediments seem to keep the OC fractionation typical for topsoil horizons with extraordinarily high amounts of light fraction OM (free and occluded) representing 20–40% of total OC. The presented results confirm that sedimentation and soil formation are simultaneous processes at AMEO sites. At WiP sites both processes seem uncoupled with alternate phases of sedimentation and soil formation. Thus, the frequent burial of topsoil material formed at WiP sites seems to enable the conservation of unstable organic matter fractions at this part of active floodplains.
    Keywords: Fluvisol Formation ; Soil Organic Matter ; Density Fractionation ; Riparian Floodplains ; Soil Aggregates ; Riparian Forests ; Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, February 2018, Vol.181(1), pp.31-35
    Description: Quantifying and understanding fluxes of methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) in natural soil–plant–atmosphere systems are crucial to predict global climate change. Wetland herbaceous species or tree species at waterlogged sites are known to emit large amounts of CH. Upland forest soils are regarded as CH sinks and tree species like upland beech are not known to significantly emit CH. Yet, data are scarce and this assumption needs to be tested. We combined measurements of soil–atmosphere and stem–atmosphere fluxes of CO and CH and soil gas profiles to assess the contribution of the different ecosystem compartments at two upland beech forest sites in Central Europe in a case study. Soil was a net CH sink at both sites, though emissions were detected consistently from beech stems at one site. Although stem emissions from beech stems were high compared to known fluxes from other upland tree species, they were substantially lower compared to the strong CH sink of the soil. Yet, we observed extraordinarily large CH emissions from one beech tree that was 140% of the CH sink of the soil. The soil gas profile at this tree indicated CH production at a soil depth 〉 0.3 m, despite the net uptake of CH consistently observed at the soil surface. Field soil assessment showed strong redoximorphic color patterns in the adjacent soil and supports this evaluation. We hypothesize that there is a transport link between the soil and stem the root system representing a preferential transport mechanism for CH despite the fact that beech roots usually do not bear aerenchyma. The high mobility of gases requires a holistic view on the soil–plant–atmosphere system. Therefore, we recommend including field soil assessment and soil gas profiles measurements when investigating soil–atmosphere and stem–atmosphere fluxes to better understand the sources of gases and their transport mechanisms.
    Keywords: Ch 4 ; Soil Gas Profile ; Gas Flux ; Stem Gas Flux ; Co 2 ; Methanogenesis
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 February 2017, Vol.288, pp.204-212
    Description: Deadwood is a key factor in forest ecosystems, yet how it influences forest soil properties is uncertain. We hypothesized that changes in soil properties induced by deadwood mainly depend on the amount of released phenolic matter. Consequently we expected softwood- and hardwood-related deadwood effects on soil to be explained by unequal enrichment of phenolic substances. We measured differences in the quantity and composition of soil organic matter (SOM), pH, nutrient concentrations, and enzymatic activity between paired control and treatment points influenced by deadwood of silver fir ( Mill.) and European beech ( L.), and checked for correlations with total C and phenolic matter; the latter was quantified as aromaticity of water-extractable organic C through specific UV absorbance at 280 nm. Near fir deadwood, aromaticity and effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased while pH decreased. In comparison, concentrations of water-extractable organic C, effective CEC, exchangeable Ca and Mg , base saturation, and available molybdenum-reactive P increased near beech deadwood while exchangeable Al decreased. For fir deadwood, soil properties strongly correlated almost exclusively with total C. For beech deadwood, numerous strong correlations with aromaticity indicated that extractable phenolics influenced soil properties. These differences in correlations imply that deadwood affects soil through the composition of added phenolic matter, which would stem from differing decay processes and organisms. Decayed, particulate lignin from brown-rot in fir deadwood as opposed to oxidized, dissolved lignin from white-rot in beech deadwood would account for our observations.
    Keywords: Coarse Woody Debris ; Soil Chemistry ; Lignin ; Brown-Rot Fungi ; White-Rot Fungi ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2015, Vol.15(1), pp.1-12
    Description: Byline: Daniela Gildemeister (1,2), George Metreveli (1), Sandra Spielvogel (3), Sabina Hens (1,4), Friederike Lang (5), Gabriele E. Schaumann (1) Keywords: Cation bridges; Cross-link; Differential scanning calorimetry; Dissolved organic matter; Glass transition; Water molecule bridges Abstract: Purpose Precipitation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by multivalent cations is important for biogeochemical cycling of organic carbon. We investigated to which extent cation bridges are involved in DOM precipitation and how cross-links by cations and water molecule bridges (WaMB) stabilise the matrix of precipitated DOM. Materials and methods DOM was precipitated from the aqueous extract of a forest floor layer adding solutions of Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2, Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3 and Pb(NO.sub.3).sub.2 with different initial metal cation/C (Me/C) ratios. Precipitates were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry before and after ageing to detect cation bridges, WaMB and restructuring of supramolecular structure. Results and discussion Twenty-five to sixty-seven per cent of the dissolved organic carbon was precipitated. The precipitation efficiency of cations increased in the order Ca〈Al〈Pb, while the cation content of precipitates increased in the order Pb〈Ca〈Al. The different order and the decrease in the WaMB transition temperature (T*) for Al/C〉3 is explained by additional formation of small AlOOH particles. Thermal analysis indicated WaMB and their disruption at T* of 53--65 [degrees]C. Like cation content, T* increased with increasing Me/C ratio and in the order Ca〈Pb〈Al for low Me/C. This supports the general assumption that cross-linking ability increases in the order Ca〈Pb〈Al. The low T* for high initial Me/C suggests less stable and less cross-linked precipitates than for low Me/C ratios. Conclusions Our results suggest a very similar thermal behaviour of OM bound in precipitates compared with soil organic matter and confirms the relevance of WaMB in stabilisation of the supramolecular structure of cation-DOM precipitates. Thus, stabilisation of the supramolecular structure of the DOM precipitates is subjected to dynamics in soils. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Universitat Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829, Landau, Germany (2) Umweltbundesamt, FG IV 2.2 Pharmaceuticals, Worlitzer Platz 1, 06844, Dessau-Ro[sz]lau, Germany (3) Department of Geography, Institute of Integrated Natural Sciences, Universitat Koblenz-Landau, Universitatsstr. 1, 56070, Koblenz, Germany (4) GN Dr. Netta Beratende Ingenieure und Geowissenschaftler, Bienengarten 3, 56072, Koblenz, Germany (5) Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, Institute of Forest Sciences, 79085, Freiburg i.Br., Germany Article History: Registration Date: 09/07/2014 Received Date: 02/04/2014 Accepted Date: 09/07/2014 Online Date: 30/07/2014 Article note: Responsible editor: Dong-Mei Zhou Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s11368-014-0946-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Cation bridges ; Cross-link ; Differential scanning calorimetry ; Dissolved organic matter ; Glass transition ; Water molecule bridges
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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