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  • Sulfadiazine
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Biometrical Journal, Jan, 2012, Vol.54(1), p.94(14)
    Description: Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia , Shinella , Stenotrophomonas , Clostridium , Peptostreptococcus , Leifsonia , Gemmatimonas , were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter , Hydrogenophaga , and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.
    Keywords: Medical Informatics -- Analysis ; Potatoes -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0323-3847
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, April 2011, Vol.77(7), pp.2527-30
    Description: Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Bacterial ; Genes, Bacterial ; Manure ; Metagenome ; Soil Microbiology ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Pharmacology ; Sulfadiazine -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, March 2013, Vol.79(5), pp.1704-11
    Description: Spreading manure containing antibiotics in agriculture is assumed to stimulate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in soil bacterial populations. Plant roots influencing the soil environment and its microflora by exudation of growth substrates might considerably increase this effect. In this study, the effects of manure from pigs treated with sulfadiazine (SDZ), here called SDZ manure, on the abundance and transferability of sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 in the rhizosphere of maize and grass were compared to the effects in bulk soil in a field experiment. In plots that repeatedly received SDZ manure, a significantly higher abundance of both sul genes was detected compared to that in plots where manure from untreated pigs was applied. Significantly lower abundances of sul genes relative to bacterial ribosomal genes were encountered in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. However, in contrast to results for bulk soil, the sul gene abundance in the SDZ manure-treated rhizosphere constantly deviated from control treatments over a period of 6 weeks after manuring, suggesting ongoing antibiotic selection over this period. Transferability of sulfonamide resistance was analyzed by capturing resistance plasmids from soil communities into Escherichia coli. Increased rates of plasmid capture were observed in samples from SDZ manure-treated bulk soil and the rhizosphere of maize and grass. More than 97% of the captured plasmids belonged to the LowGC type (having low G+C content), giving further evidence for their important contribution to the environmental spread of antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, differences between bulk soil and rhizosphere need to be considered when assessing the risks associated with the spreading of antibiotic resistance.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Bacterial ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; Manure ; Soil Microbiology ; Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Sulfadiazine -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 4
    In: FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2013, Vol. 348(2), pp.127-132
    Description: LowGC-type plasmids conferring resistance to sulfonamides have been frequently isolated from manure and manured soil. However, knowledge on the dynamics of plasmid-carrying populations in soil and their response to the presence of sulfonamides is scarce. Here, we investigated effects of the sulfonamide resistance conferring plasmid pHHV216 on the fitness of Acinetobacter baylyi BD413 in soil after application of manure with or without the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ). The persistence of A. baylyi BD413 pHHV216 in competition to its plasmid-free variant was followed in soil microcosms. CFU counts showed a decrease in A. baylyi BD413 in manured soils over the experimental period of 32 days by about 0.5 log units. The proportion of the plasmid-carrying populations decreased from 50 to 〈 40% in the absence of SDZ, while the proportion of plasmid-carrying BD413 increased from 50 to about 65% with SDZ added. The data suggest that SDZ introduced via manure into soil was bioaccessible, providing a fitness advantage for the plasmid-carrying population of BD413 in soil, while the plasmid conferred a fitness disadvantage when selective pressure by SDZ was absent. In future, this method may be used as a tool for the assessment of bioavailability of antibiotics in soil.
    Keywords: Plasmid ; Sulfadiazine ; Antibiotic Resistance ; Soil ; Antibiotic Selection ; Host Fitness
    ISSN: 0378-1097
    E-ISSN: 1574-6968
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  • 5
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2014, Vol. 87(1), pp.78-88
    Description: Difloxacin (DIF) belongs to the class of fluoroquinolone antibiotics that have been intensively used for the treatment of bacterial infections in veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this field study was to compare the effect of manure from DIF-treated pigs and untreated pigs on the bacterial community structure and resistance gene abundance in bulk soil and rhizosphere of maize. A significant effect of DIF manure on the bacterial community composition in bulk soil was revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. In few samples, quinolone resistance genes qnrB and qnrS1/qnrS2 were detected by PCR and subsequent hybridization, while qnrA was not detected. Quantitative PCR revealed an increased abundance of the integrase gene intI1 of class I integrons and sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 in DIF manure-treated bulk soil and rhizosphere, relative to 16S rRNA genes, while traN genes specific for LowGC-type plasmids were increased only in bulk soil. Principal component analysis of DGGE profiles suggested a manure effect in soil until day 28, but samples of days 71 and 140 were found close to untreated soil, indicating resilience of soil community compositions from disturbances by manure. 〈p〉〈fig id="fig0" position="float"〉 〈graphic alt-version="no" position="float" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="fem12191-toc-0001" xlink:type="simple"/〉〈/fig〉 〈/p〉
    Keywords: Difloxacin ; Resistance ; Dgge ; Soil ; Manure ; Rhizosphere
    ISSN: 01686496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 6
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2016, Vol. 92(5)
    Description: Naturally occurring drying–rewetting events in soil have been shown to affect the dissipation of veterinary antibiotics entering soil by manure fertilization. However, knowledge of effects on the soil microbial community structure and resistome is scarce. Here, consequences of drying–rewetting cycles on effects of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soil planted with Dactylis glomerata L. were investigated in microcosms. Manure containing SDZ or not was applied to the pregrown grass and incubated for 56 days in a climate chamber. Water was either added daily or reduced during two drying events of 7 days, each followed by a recovery phase. Total community DNA was analyzed to reveal the effects on the bacterial community structure and on the abundance of sul1 , sul2 , intI1 , intI2 , qacE + qacEΔ1 , traN and korB genes relative to 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE fingerprints indicated that drying–rewetting cycles modulated the effects of SDZ on the bacterial community structure in the soil. Furthermore, the SDZ treatment increased the relative abundance of sulfonamide resistance and integrase genes compared to the control. However, this increase was not different between moisture regimes, indicating that drying–rewetting had only a negligible effect on the selection of the resistome by SDZ in the manured soil. Drying–rewetting cycles modulated the effects of sulfadiazine applied with manure on the soil bacterial community structure but had only a negligible effect on the soil resistome. Graphical Abstract Figure. Drying–rewetting cycles modulated the effects of sulfadiazine applied with manure on the soil bacterial community structure but had only a negligible effect on the soil resistome.
    Keywords: Drying ; Rewetting ; Sulfadiazine ; Rhizosphere ; Resistome ; Mobilome
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Microbial Ecology, 2010, Vol.60(4), pp.703-707
    Description: Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is an antibiotic frequently used in agricultural husbandry. Via manuring of excrements of medicated animals, the drug reaches the soil and might impair important biochemical transformation processes performed by microbes, e.g., the nitrogen turnover. We studied the effect of pig manure and SDZ-spiked pig manure on denitrifying bacteria by quantifying nirK and nirS nitrite reductase genes in two arable soils. Addition of manure entailed mainly an increase of nirK -harboring denitrifiers in both soils, whereas in the SDZ-amended treatments, primarily the nirS denitrifiers increased in abundance after the bioavailable SDZ had declined. However, the community composition of nirS nitrite reducers investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis did not change despite the observed alterations in abundance.
    Keywords: Environmental Health ; Bacterial Genetics ; Soil Ecology ; Sulfadiazine ; Soils ; Universities And Colleges;
    ISSN: 0095-3628
    E-ISSN: 1432-184X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2008, Vol.40(7), pp.1892-1900
    Description: The veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ), labelled by C, was administered to pigs to follow the fate of the drug and its metabolites in manure and manure-amended soil, and to investigate the dynamics of drug effects on resistance genes and bacterial communities. In the manure sampled over 10 days, more than 96% of the drug was found as parent compound or metabolites -acetyl-SDZ and 4-hydroxy-SDZ. While the manure was stored the concentration of SDZ increased by 42% due to deacetylation of the metabolite -acetyl-SDZ, whereas the minor metabolite 4-hydroxy-SDZ kept constant. In the soil the extractable amounts of the compounds decreased exponentially to less than 1 mg kg within 11 days after manure amendment. The abundances of SDZ resistance genes 1 and 2 were determined by qPCR relative to 16S rRNA genes in total DNA from manure and manure-amended soil. In manure both genes increased exponentially in copy number during the first 60 days of storage, suggesting preferential growth of resistant populations. However, the abundance of 1 and 2 decreased below 10 copies per 16S rRNA gene after 175 days. With manure high amounts of 1 and 2 were introduced into the soil which were reduced by more than 10 times within 24 days. Thereafter, 1 was stably maintained in soil, while 2 further decreased between day 60 and day 165. A mathematical model was developed that could well explain the time course of gene abundance by considering the cost of genes, horizontal gene transfer, and selection of the resistant populations in the presence of SDZ. Modelling revealed a selective effect of SDZ on 2 even at low concentrations down to 0.15 mg kg soil. Bacterial community profiles of manure and manure-amended soil were distinct, indicating that bacteria introduced with manure do not become prominent in soil. The composition of the bacterial community in manure constantly changed during storage, but mainly during the first 10 days. Profiles of soil bacterial communities revealed only a transient perturbation by manure containing SDZ.
    Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance ; Veterinary Medicine ; Manure Fertilization ; Sulfonamide ; LC–MS/MS ; Agriculture ; Veterinary Medicine ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2008, Vol.40(7), pp.1583-1591
    Description: Large amounts of veterinary antibiotics enter soil via manure of treated animals. The effects on soil microbial community structure are not well investigated. In particular, the impact of antibiotics in the presence of manure is poorly understood. In this study, two agricultural soils, a sandy Cambisol (KS) and a loamy Luvisol (ML), were spiked with manure and sulfadiazine (SDZ; 0, 10 and 100 μg g ) and incubated for 1, 4, 32 and 61 days. Untreated controls received only water. The microbial community structure was characterised by investigating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and using PCR–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA. The total concentration of PLFA increased with addition of manure and was reduced by both SDZ concentrations at incubation times 〉4 days. The SDZ addition decreased the bacteria:fungi ratio. The largest stress level, measured as ratio of PLFA (cyc17:0 + cyc19:0)/(16:1ω7c + 18:1ω7c), was found for the controls, followed by the manure treatments and the SDZ treatments. A discriminant analysis of the PLFA clearly separated treatments and incubation times. Both soils differed in total PLFA concentrations and Gram :Gram ratios, but showed similar changes in PLFA pattern upon soil treatment. Effects of manure and SDZ on the bacterial community structure were also revealed by DGGE analysis. Effects on pseudomonads and β-proteobacteria were less pronounced. While community structure remained altered even after two months, the extractable concentrations of SDZ decreased exponentially and the remaining solution concentrations after 32 days were ≤27% of the spiking concentration. Our results demonstrate that a single addition of SDZ has prolonged effects on the microbial community structure in soils.
    Keywords: Antibiotics ; Sulfadiazine ; Phospholipid Fatty Acids ; Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis ; Microbial Community Structure ; Diversity ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 10
    In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, January 2013, Vol.83(1), pp.125-134
    Description: Veterinary antibiotics entering agricultural land with manure pose the risk of spreading antibiotic resistance. The fate of sulfadiazine () introduced via manure and its effect on resistance gene levels in the rhizosphere were compared with that in bulk soil. Maize plants were grown for 9 weeks in soil fertilized with manure either from ‐treated pigs ( treatment) or from untreated pigs (control). ‐extractable concentrations of dissipated faster in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil, but remained detectable over the whole time. For bulk soil, the abundance of and relative to 16S r gene copies was higher in the treatment than in the control, as revealed by quantitative on days 14 and 63. In the rhizosphere, sampled on day 63, the relative gene abundances were also significantly increased in the treatment. The accumulated exposure (until day 63) of the bacteria significantly correlated with the log relative abundance of and , so that these resistance genes were less abundant in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. Plasmids conferring resistance, which were exogenously captured in mainly belonged to the Low group and carried a heterogeneous load of resistances to different classes of antibiotics.
    Keywords: Sulfadiazine ; Genes ; Manure ; Maize Rhizosphere ; Soil ; Mesocosm ; Low‐Type Plasmid
    ISSN: 0168-6496
    E-ISSN: 1574-6941
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