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  • Throughfall
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Biogeochemistry, 2011, Vol.106(3), pp.461-473
    Description: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of the C cycle in forest ecosystems, but dynamics and origin of DOC in throughfall and soil solution are yet poorly understood. In a 2-year study, we analyzed the radiocarbon signature of DOC in throughfall and soil solution beneath the Oa horizon and at 90 cm depth in a Norway spruce forest on a Podzol soil. A two-pool mixing model revealed that throughfall DOC comprised mainly biogenic C, i.e. recently fixed C, from canopy leaching and possibly other sources. The contribution of fossil DOC from atmospheric deposition to throughfall DOC was on average 6% with maxima of 8–11% during the dormant season. In soil solution from the Oa horizon, DO 14 C signature was highly dynamic (range from −8‰ to +103‰), but not correlated with DOC concentration. Radiocarbon signatures suggest that DOC beneath the Oa horizon originated mainly from occluded and mineral associated organic matter fractions of the Oa horizon rather than from the Oi or Oe horizon. Relatively old C was released in the rewetting phase following a drought period in the late summer of 2006. In contrast, the DO 14 C signature indicated the release of younger C throughout the humid year 2007. In soil solutions from 90 cm depth, DO 14 C signatures were also highly dynamic (−127‰ to +3‰) despite constantly low DOC concentrations. Similar to the Oa horizon, the lowest DO 14 C signature at 90 cm depth was found after the rewetting phase in the late summer of 2006. Because of the variation in the DO 14 C signatures at this depth, we conclude that DOC was not equilibrated with the surrounding soil, but also originated from overlaying soil horizons. The dynamics of DO 14 C in throughfall and soil solution suggest that the sources of DOC are highly variable in time. Extended drought periods likely have a strong influence on release and translocation of DOC from relatively old and possibly stabilized soil organic matter fractions. Temporal variations as well as the input of fossil DOC needs to be considered when calibrating DOC models based on DO 14 C signatures.
    Keywords: Dissolved organic carbon ; Forest soils ; Norway spruce ; Throughfall ; Radiocarbon ; C
    ISSN: 0168-2563
    E-ISSN: 1573-515X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2007, Vol.377(2), pp.308-318
    Description: The fate and behaviour of total arsenic (As) and of As species in soils is of concern for the quality of drinking water. To estimate the relevance of organic As species and the mobility of different As species, we evaluated the vertical distribution of organic and inorganic As species in two uncontaminated and two contaminated upland soils. Dimethylarsinic acid (up to 6 ng As g ), trimethylarsine oxide (up to 1.5 ng As g ), 4 unidentified organic As species (up to 3 ng As g ) and arsenobetaine (up to 15 ng As g ), were detected in the forest soils. Arsenobetaine was the dominant organic As species in both unpolluted and polluted forest soils. No organic As species were detected in the contaminated grassland soil. The organic As species may account for up to 30% of the mobile fraction in the unpolluted forest floor, but never exceed 9% in the unpolluted mineral soil. Highest concentrations of organic As species were found in the forest floors. The concentrations of extractable arsenite were highest in the surface horizons of all soils and may represent up to 36% of total extractable As. The concentrations of extractable arsenate were also highest in the Oa layers in the forest soils and decreased steeply in the mineral soil. In conclusion, the investigated forest soils contain a number of organic As species. The organic As species in forest soils seem to result from throughfall and litterfall and are retained mostly in the forest floor. The relative high concentrations of extractable arsenite, one of the most toxic As species, and arsenate in the forest floor point to the risk of their transfer to surface water by superficial flow under heavy rain events.
    Keywords: Arsenic Speciation ; Forest Soil ; Forest Floor ; Grassland Soil ; Mobility ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2004, Vol.332(1), pp.231-241
    Description: Organotin compounds (OTC) are highly toxic pollutants that have been shown to affect many aquatic ecosystems. Little is known about the input and fate of OTC in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, soil pools, concentrations and fluxes in bulk precipitation, throughfall, fog, litterfall and runoff of OTC and Sn sub(total) were investigated in a forested ecosystem (Picea abies, Karst.) in NE Bavaria, Germany. The concentrations of OTC and Sn sub(total) were generally in the order fog〉throughfall〉bulk precipitation. Average concentrations of OTC sub(total) ranged from 57 ng Sn l super(-1) in fog to 5.8 ng Sn l super(-1) in bulk precipitation. Concentrations of Sn sub(total) were in the same order but between 490 ng Sn l super(-1) in fog and 140 ng Sn l super(-1) in bulk precipitation, on average. Average OTC sub(total) concentrations in litterfall were 12.9 ng Sn g super(- 1) and those of Sn sub(total) in litterfall 38 ng Sn g super(-1). All OTC concentrations in runoff were lower than in bulk precipitation, while those of Sn sub(total) were similar to the concentrations in bulk precipitation. Monobutyltin was the dominating OTC in bulk precipitation, throughfall, fog and litterfall, but was seldom detected in the runoff. The annual total deposition of OTC sub(total) (calculated as throughfall+litterfall) was 172 mg Sn ha super(-1) year super(-1), with 45 mg Sn ha super(-1) year super(-1) represented by litterfall. The annual runoff from the catchment of OTC sub(total) amounted to 25 mg Sn ha super(-1) year super(-1). The total deposition of Sn sub(total) was 4.9 g Sn ha super(-1) year super(- 1), of which 0.2 g Sn ha super(-1) year super(-1) was litterfall. The annual runoff of Sn sub(total) was 2.4 g Sn ha super(-1) year super(-1). The mass balance showed a high retention of OTC and Sn sub(total) in the catchment. The forest soils act as a strong sink for OTC and Sn sub(total). Only small amounts of deposited OTC are released to runoff. The ratio of soil pools to annual accumulation for total OTC (46 years) indicates that OTC inputs have been occurring already for many decades or have been substantially higher in the past than today.
    Keywords: Organotin ; Biogeochemistry ; Forested Catchment ; Bulk Precipitation ; Throughfall ; Fog ; Runoff ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2007, Vol.149(2), pp.201-208
    Description: To identify the role of the forest floor in arsenic (As) biogeochemistry, concentrations and fluxes of inorganic and organic As in throughfall, litterfall and forest floor percolates at different layers were investigated. Nearly 40% of total As input (5.3 g As ha yr ) was retained in Oi layer, whereas As fluxes from Oe and Oa layers exceeded the input by far (10.8 and 20 g As ha yr , respectively). Except dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), fluxes of organic As decreased with depth of forest floor so that 〈10% of total deposition (all 〈0.3 g As ha yr ) reached the mineral soil. All forest floor layers are sinks for most organic As. Conversely, Oe and Oa layers are sources of As , arsenite, arsenate and DMA. Significant correlations ( ≥ 0.43) between fluxes of As , arsenite, arsenate or DMA and water indicate hydrological conditions and adsorption–desorption as factors influencing their release from the forest floor. The higher net release of arsenite from Oe and Oa and of DMA from Oa layer in the growing than dormant season also suggests microbial influences on the release of arsenite and DMA. The forest floor layers are generally a source for inorganic arsenic species but a sink for most organic arsenic species under the present deposition rate.
    Keywords: Arsenic Speciation ; Throughfall ; Litterfall ; Forest Floor Percolate ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2000, Vol.260(1), pp.213-223
    Description: Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (CH sub(3)Hg super(+)) are global pollutants, but little information is available on rates of atmospheric input, distribution and mobility in soils and catchments of central Europe. The objectives of this study were to investigate input and output fluxes of these compounds in a deciduous and a coniferous catchment in NE Bavaria (Germany), and to estimate pools and mobility of total Hg (Hg sub(tot)) and CH sub(3)Hg super(+) at the catchment scale. Bulk precipitation, throughfall, litterfall and runoff were collected biweekly from April 1998 to April 1999. Several soil profiles were sampled to estimate pools of Hg compounds in the catchments. In both catchments highest contents of Hg sub(tot) were found in the Oa layer of the forest floor (up to 500 ng g super(-1)) and the soil storage of Hg sub(tot) calculated for a soil depth of 60 cm was approximately 890 g ha super(-1) in the coniferous and 190 g ha super(-1) in the deciduous catchment. Highest contents of CH sub(3)Hg super(+) in upland soils were observed in the Oi layer of the forest floor, and soil storage of CH sub(3)Hg super(+) was 4.35 g ha super(-1) in the coniferous and 0.59 g ha super(-1) in the deciduous catchment. The annual total deposition of Hg sub(tot) (total deposition not measured directly but calculated from throughfall and litterfall) was 541 mg ha super(-1) year super(-1) in the coniferous and 618 mg ha super(-1) year super(-1) in the deciduous catchment. Total deposition rates of CH sub(3)Hg super(+) were 3.5 and 2.6 mg ha super(-1) year super(-1). The contribution of litterfall to the total deposition of Hg sub(tot) and CH sub(3)Hg super(+) was 55% in the deciduous catchment. In the coniferous catchment, the contribution of litterfall to total deposition was only 29% for Hg sub(tot), but 55% for CH sub(3)Hg super(+). By far the largest proportion of the deposited CH sub(3)Hg super(+) and Hg sub(tot) remained in the catchments (85% in the coniferous, 95% in the deciduous). As compared to remote Swedish catchments, deposition and output via runoff of Hg sub(tot) were higher, but deposition and output of CH sub(3)Hg super(+) were lower in our catchments. In contrast to other studies, the annual budget revealed no differences in the mobility between the two species at the catchment scale. However, temporal patterns of the runoff fluxes and converse gradients of CH sub(3)Hg super(+) and Hg sub(tot) contents in the forest floor indicated differences in mobility on shorter time scales.
    Keywords: Mercury ; Methylmercury ; Forested Catchments ; Deposition ; Heavy Metals ; Runoff ; Soil ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 6
    In: Environmental Science & Technology, Jan, 1995, Vol.29(1), p.51(8)
    Description: Long-term changes in bulk precipitation chemistry, soil and throughfall water and exchangeable base cations in the spruce and beech forests of Solling, Germany, were examined to identify the dynamics of the base cation chemistry of the soils. Results revealed that the forests' soils underwent acidification during the early 1970s as a result of SO4 deposition. SO4 levels, however, dropped after 1976 as industries cut emissions. Despite this, acidification persisted in the spruce forests' soil due to reduced deposition of calcium and magnesium. Beech soil, however, recovered.
    Keywords: Soil Acidification -- Research ; Soil Chemistry -- Research ; Old Growth Forests -- Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 15205851
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biogeochemistry, 2010, Vol.101(1), pp.243-256
    Description: Fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) may play an important role for losses of C and N from the soils of forest ecosystems, especially under conditions of high precipitation. We studied DOC and DON fluxes and concentrations in relation to precipitation intensity in a subtropical montane Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana forest in Taiwan. Our objective was, to quantify DOC and DON fluxes and to understand the role of high precipitation for DOC and DON export in this ecosystem. From 2005 to 2008 we sampled bulk precipitation, throughfall, forest floor percolates and seepage (60 cm) and analyzed DOC, DON and mineral N concentrations. Average DOC fluxes in the soil were extremely high (962 and 478 kg C ha −1  year −1 in forest floor percolates and seepage, respectively) while DON fluxes were similar to other (sub)tropical ecosystems (16 and 8 kg N ha −1 year −1 , respectively). Total N fluxes in the soil were dominated by DON. Dissolved organic C and N concentrations in forest floor percolates were independent of the water flux. No dilution effect was visible. Instead, the pool size of potentially soluble DOC and DON was variable as indicated by different DOC and DON concentrations in forest floor percolates at similar precipitation amounts. Therefore, we hypothesized, that these pools are not likely to be depleted in the long term. The relationship between water fluxes in bulk precipitation and DOC and DON fluxes in forest floor percolates was positive (DOC r  = 0.908, DON r  = 0.842, respectively, Spearman rank correlation). We concluded, that precipitation is an important driver for DOC and DON losses from this subtropical montane forest and that these DOC losses play an important role in the soil C cycle of this ecosystem. Moreover, we found that the linear relationship between bulk precipitation and DOC and DON fluxes in forest floor percolates of temperate ecosystems does not hold when incorporating additional data on these fluxes from (subtropical) ecosystems.
    Keywords: Dissolved organic nitrogen ; Dissolved organic carbon ; Precipitation ; Fluxes ; Forest floor ; Subtropical montane forest
    ISSN: 0168-2563
    E-ISSN: 1573-515X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2004, Vol.130(2), pp.177-186
    Description: Organotin compounds (OTC) are highly toxic pollutants and have been mostly investigated so far in aquatic systems and sediments. The concentrations and fluxes of different organotin compounds, including methyl-, butyl-, and octyltin species in precipitation and fog were investigated in a forested catchment in NE Bavaria, Germany. Contents, along with the vertical distribution and storages in two upland and two wetland soils were determined. During the 1-year monitoring, the OTC concentrations in bulk deposition, throughfall and fog ranged from 1 ng Sn l −1 to several ten ng Sn l −1 , but never over 200 ng Sn l −1 . The OTC concentrations in fog were generally higher than in throughfall and bulk deposition. Mono-substituted species were the dominant Sn species in precipitation (up to 190 ng Sn l −1 ) equaling a flux of up to 70 mg Sn ha −1 a −1 . In upland soils, OTC contents peaked in the forest floor (up to 30 ng Sn g −1 ) and decreased sharply with the depth. In wetland soils, OTC had slightly higher contents in the upper horizons. The dominance of mono-substituted species in precipitation is well reflected in the contents and storages of OTC in both upland and wetland soils. The ratios of OTC soil storages to the annual throughfall flux ranged from 20 to 600 years. These high ratios are probably due to high stability and low mobility of OTC in soils. No evidence was found for methylation of tin in the wetland soils. In comparison with sediments, concentrations and contents of organotin in forest soils are considerably lower, and the dominant species are less toxic. It is concluded that forested soils may act as sinks for OTC deposited from the atmosphere. Forested soils may act as sinks for atmospherically deposited organotin compounds.
    Keywords: Organotin Compounds ; Upland and Wetland Soils ; Precipitation ; Fog ; Forested Ecosystem ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2008, Vol.256(5), pp.1151-1159
    Description: Norway spruce ( (L.) Karst.) is an economically important, but relatively drought-sensitive tree species that might suffer from increasing drought intensities and frequencies, which are predicted to occur in parts of central Europe under future climatic change. In a throughfall exclusion experiment using sub-canopy roofs, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced drought leads to an increase in fine root mortality, and also to a higher, subsequent fine root growth. Fine root production and mortality were assessed using two independent approaches, sequential soil coring (organic layer) and direct observations in minirhizotrons (organic layer plus upper mineral soil). Six weeks of throughfall exclusion resulted in mild drought stress, i.e. a reduction in average soil moisture from 20 to 12 vol.% during the treatment. Based on the sequential coring data, experimental drought did not result in significant changes in fine root biomass during the 6-week treatment period, but caused an increase in fine root mortality by 61% in the 6 weeks following the drought treatment. Remarkably, fine root production showed a synchronous increase in this period, which more than compensated for the loss due to increased mortality. The minirhizotron data confirmed that the drought treatment increased fine root loss in the organic layer. Based on this method, however, root loss occurred during the drought period and was not compensated by increased root production. The mild drought stress was mainly restricted to the organic layer and did not significantly influence fine root dynamics in the mineral soil. We calculated that the drought event resulted in an extra input of about 28 g C m and 1.1 g N m to the soil due to increased fine root mortality. We conclude that even periods of mild drought significantly increase fine root mortality and the associated input of root-derived C to the soil organic matter pool in temperate Norway spruce forests.
    Keywords: Decomposition ; Fine Root Mortality ; Minirhizotrons ; Production ; Soil Coring ; Throughfall Exclusion ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2002, Vol.164(1), pp.137-147
    Description: The biogeochemistry of Mg is of special importance in terrestrial ecology since Mg deficiency is a widespread phenomenon in European forests. Here, we investigate regional patterns of annual Mg fluxes with throughfall in relation to Mg outputs with seepage and runoff using published data from 71 forest ecosystems. Throughfall fluxes of Mg in this dataset are between 0.24 and 22.4 kg ha −1 yr −1 and are related to two major factors: the distance to the sea and the amount of dust in deposition. The gradient of Mg input from the sea may extend to 200 km inland. Output fluxes of Mg are on an average higher than throughfall input fluxes, with an average net loss of Mg from most ecosystems of 0.5–1.5 kg ha −1 yr −1 despite widespread Mg deficiency in European forest ecosystems. The amount of Mg leached in runoff or seepage water is largely dependent on the amount of Mg in throughfall. The influence of soil conditions and bedrock type on Mg output are surprisingly minor in this database indicating that the Mg cycle in many European forest ecosystems is to a great extent influenced by atmospheric inputs of Mg.
    Keywords: Budget ; Europe ; Fluxes ; Forest ; Magnesium ; Runoff ; Seepage ; Throughfall ; Weathering ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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