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  • Tillage
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2015, Vol.178(3), pp.486-498
    Description: Vegetation restoration efforts (planting trees and grass) have been effective in controlling soil erosion on the Loess Plateau (NW China). Shifts in land cover result in modifications of soil properties. Yet, whether the hydraulic properties have also been improved by vegetation restoration is still not clear. The objective of this paper was to understand how vegetation restoration alters soil structure and related soil hydraulic properties such as permeability and soil water storage capacity. Three adjacent sites with similar soil texture, soil type, and topography, but different land cover (black locust forest, grassland, and cropland) were selected in a typical small catchment in the middle reaches of the Yellow River (Loess Plateau). Seasonal variation of soil hydraulic properties in topsoil and subsoil were examined. Our study revealed that land‐use type had a significant impact on field‐saturated, near‐saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil water characteristics. Specifically, conversion from cropland to grass or forests promotes infiltration capacity as a result of increased saturated hydraulic conductivity, air capacity, and macroporosity. Moreover, conversion from cropland to forest tends to promote the creation of mesopores, which increase soil water‐storage capacity. Tillage of cropland created temporarily well‐structured topsoil but compacted subsoil as indicated by low subsoil saturated hydraulic conductivity, air capacity, and plant‐available water capacity. No impact of land cover conversion on unsaturated hydraulic conductivities at suction 〉 300 cm was found indicating that changes in land cover do not affect functional meso‐ and microporosity. Our work demonstrates that changes in soil hydraulic properties resulting from soil conservation efforts need to be considered when soil conservation measures shall be implemented in water‐limited regions. For ensuring the sustainability of such measures, the impact of soil conversion on water resources and hydrological processes needs to be further investigated.
    Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity ; Land‐Use Change ; Loess Plateau ; Tillage ; Water Retention Curve
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2011, Vol.10(1), p.354
    Description: Combined hood and disk infiltrometer experiments were performed in conjunction with the laboratory measurement of soil water retention to quantify the impact on soil hydraulic properties of a mixed cropping rotation compared with pasture. The two sites were in adjacent fields on the same soil type. One site had been cropped for 2 yr. The other site had been under extensively grazed pasture for 2 yr. Our hypothesis was that the soil structure under the cropped treatment represented an initial stage and the soil structure under the pasture a final stage of a mixed pasture-cropping rotation cycle. The measured data were incorporated into an existing pore-space evolution model describing the temporal change in the pore-size distribution. The saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivities of the cropped soil were up to four times higher than those of the pasture soil and the amount of flow-active macropores were approximately 80% larger under the cropping than under pasture. This can be attributed to the loosening by tillage of the cropped soil before our measurements. The observed high infiltration rates under cropping could indicate that water flow took place between the aggregates rather than through the soil matrix. The lower conductivities and smaller amount of flow-active pores in the pasture soil than the cropped soil can be seen as a collapse of interaggregate pores after tillage. A reasonable prediction of the pore-size distribution dynamics resulting from different management practices was only possible when this loss of pores due to collapse was considered. For this purpose, a degradation term describing the time-dependent loss of macropores after tillage was incorporated in the model.
    Keywords: Soils ; Hydrogeology ; Agriculture ; Australasia ; Bulk Density ; Cambisols ; Canterbury New Zealand ; Canterbury Plains ; Equations ; Experimental Studies ; Hydraulic Conductivity ; Hydrodynamics ; Infiltration ; Laboratory Studies ; New Zealand ; Pallic Soils ; Pedotransfer Functions ; Porosity ; Quantitative Analysis ; Size Distribution ; Soil Management ; Soils ; South Island ; Tillage ; Unsaturated Zone;
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 06 December 2019, Vol.65(14), pp.2013-2028
    Description: Degradation of soil quality caused by conventional tillage practices is a major concern for the sustainability of rice-wheat cropping systems in South Asian region. Therefore, suitable conservation agriculture (CA) practices are required. This study investigates the stratification and storage...
    Keywords: Conservation Agriculture ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Total Nitrogen ; Storage ; Stratification Ratio ; Indo-Gangetic Plains ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0365-0340
    E-ISSN: 1476-3567
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: MethodsX, 2019, Vol.6, pp.2118-2126
    Description: Surface soil structure is very responsive to natural and anthropogenic impacts and these changes alter soil hydraulic properties and the soil water budget. In the midst of a dearth of efforts to capture soil structural dynamics, an analytical solution...
    Keywords: Pore Evolution Model ; Spordyn: Soil Pore Dynamics Using Python ; Soil Structure ; Temporal Dynamics ; Tillage
    ISSN: 2215-0161
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 November 2019, Vol.353, pp.401-414
    Description: Surface soil structure and pore space are very responsive to both natural and anthropogenic impacts such as rainfall or tillage. These changes affect the soil hydraulic properties as well as the soil water budget. Despite available theories and evidence on the nature of these changes, efforts to capture the temporal dynamics of soil pore size distribution (PSD) and incorporate the derived hydraulic properties in modeling studies are quite rare. The objective of this paper is to examine the suitability of an existing pore evolution model to capture the evolution of soil PSD using water retention parameter (WRP) data sets from around the world. The physical processes governing the evolution of soil PSD are incorporated in the coefficients of the pore evolution model. The applicability of the model to predict the evolution of PSD is discussed and evaluated for two cases (1) when there is a change in tillage regime, and (2) as a novel undertaking, for the months following tillage operations. For the second case, the model is also evaluated for the assumption that the WRPs for the intermediate stages following tillage is not known. This enables us to predict the effects of tillage on soil PSD at a given time even without WRP measurements at all stages. Overall, it is seen that the model and its coefficients are adequate in estimating the overall reduction in porosity and loss of inter-aggregate pores (corresponding to pressure head range from 0 to 330 cm) that are characteristic after tillage operations for both scenarios. In most cases, there is a good agreement between the observed and predicted values indicated by the and RMSE values. The model seems to be less suitable for pores with radii ≤10 μm in some cases, especially for intense rainfall scenarios which may lead to rapid aggregate breakdown and formation of finer pores at a faster rate in comparison to moderate rainfall events. As a solution, we may provide more recent initial conditions for initial PSD to the model following heavy rainfall events and continue our simulations from there to better capture the effects of rainfall. The main limitation for the application of the model is, however, the lack of adequate datasets to validate and calibrate it for different management practices, soil types, and climate regimes.
    Keywords: Pore Evolution Model ; Pore Size Distribution ; Tillage ; Temporal Changes ; Soil Structure ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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