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  • Gruen, Russell L.  (15)
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2019, Vol.51(1), pp.32-39
    Description: Objectives: Debate regarding factors associated with persistent symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury continues. Nested within a trial aiming to change practice in emergency department management of mild traumatic brain injury, this study investigated the nature of persistent symptoms, work/...
    Keywords: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury ; Post-Concussion Symptoms ; Anxiety ; Quality Of Life ; Head-Injury ; Early Predictors ; Outcomes ; Population ; Depression ; Validity ; Anxiety ; Scales ; Risk ; Good
    ISSN: 1650-1977
    E-ISSN: 16512081
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 22 September 2012, Vol.380(9847), pp.1088-1098
    Description: Severe traumatic brain injury remains a major health-care problem worldwide. Although major progress has been made in understanding of the pathophysiology of this injury, this has not yet led to substantial improvements in outcome. In this report, we address present knowledge and its limitations, research innovations, and clinical implications. Improved outcomes for patients with severe traumatic brain injury could result from progress in pharmacological and other treatments, neural repair and regeneration, optimisation of surgical indications and techniques, and combination and individually targeted treatments. Expanded classification of traumatic brain injury and innovations in research design will underpin these advances. We are optimistic that further gains in outcome for patients with severe traumatic brain injury will be achieved in the next decade.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, May 2013, Vol.66(5), pp.496-502.e2
    Description: We present a multistep process for identifying priority research areas in rehabilitation and long-term care of traumatic brain-injured (TBI) patients. In particular, we aimed to (1) identify which stakeholders should be involved; (2) identify what methods are appropriate; (3) examine different criteria for the generation of research priority areas; and (4) test the feasibility of linkage and exchange among researchers, decision makers, and other potential users of the research. Potential research questions were identified and developed using an initial scoping meeting and preliminary literature search, followed by a facilitated mapping workshop and an online survey. Identified research questions were then prioritized against specific criteria (clinical importance, novelty, and controversy). Existing evidence was then mapped to the high-priority questions using usual processes for search, screening, and selection. A broad range of stakeholders were then brought together at a forum to identify priority research themes for future research investment. Using clinical and research leaders, smaller targeted planning workshops prioritized specific research projects for each of the identified themes. Twenty-six specific questions about TBI rehabilitation were generated, 14 of which were high priority. No one method identified all high-priority questions. Methods that relied solely on the views of clinicians and researchers identified fewer high-priority questions compared with methods that used broader stakeholder engagement. Evidence maps of these high-priority questions yielded a number of evidence gaps. Priority questions and evidence maps were then used to inform a research forum, which identified 12 priority themes for future research. Our research demonstrates the value of a multistep and multimethod process involving many different types of stakeholders for prioritizing research to improve the rehabilitation outcomes of people who have suffered TBI. Enhancing stakeholder representation can be augmented using a combination of methods and a process of linkage and exchange. This process can inform decisions about prioritization of research areas.
    Keywords: Prioritization ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Research Funding ; Evidence Mapping ; Research Gaps ; Rehabilitation ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0895-4356
    E-ISSN: 1878-5921
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  • 4
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(2)
    Description: Background The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The “model of diffusion in service organisations” was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Results Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change commitment, but relatively low change efficacy). Regarding implementation processes, the importance of (visible) senior leadership for all professions involved was identified as a critical factor. An unpredictable and hectic environment brings challenges in creating an environment in which team-based and organisational learning can thrive (system antecedents for innovation). In addition, the position of the ED as the entry-point of the hospital points to the relevance of securing buy-in from other units. Conclusions We identified several organisational factors relevant to realising change in ED management of patients who present with mild head injuries. These factors will inform the intervention design and process evaluation in a trial evaluating the effectiveness of our implementation intervention.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; People And Places ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; People And Places ; People And Places ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Computer And Information Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(6), p.e0198676
    Description: OBJECTIVE:To appraise the currency, completeness and quality of evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of acute management of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS:We conducted comprehensive searches to March 2016 for published,...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neurotrauma, 15 August 2016, Vol.33(16), pp.1461-78
    Description: Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major global challenge, with rising incidence, unchanging mortality and lifelong impairments. State-of-the-science reviews are important for research planning and clinical decision support. This review aimed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating interventions for acute management of moderate/severe TBI, synthesize key RCT characteristics and findings, and determine their implications on clinical practice and future research. RCTs were identified through comprehensive database and other searches. Key characteristics, outcomes, risk of bias, and analysis approach were extracted. Data were narratively synthesized, with a focus on robust (multi-center, low risk of bias, n 〉 100) RCTs, and three-dimensional graphical figures also were used to explore relationships between RCT characteristics and findings. A total of 207 RCTs were identified. The 191 completed RCTs enrolled 35,340 participants (median, 66). Most (72%) were single center and enrolled less than 100 participants (69%). There were 26 robust RCTs across 18 different interventions. For 74% of 392 comparisons across all included RCTs, there was no significant difference between groups. Positive findings were broadly distributed with respect to RCT characteristics. Less than one-third of RCTs demonstrated low risk of bias for random sequence generation or allocation concealment, less than one-quarter used covariate adjustment, and only 7% employed an ordinal analysis approach. Considerable investment of resources in producing 191 completed RCTs for acute TBI management has resulted in very little translatable evidence. This may result from broad distribution of research effort, small samples, preponderance of single-center RCTs, and methodological shortcomings. More sophisticated RCT design, large multi-center RCTs in priority areas, increased focus on pre-clinical research, and alternatives to RCTs, such as comparative effectiveness research and precision medicine, are needed to fully realize the potential of acute TBI research to benefit patients.
    Keywords: Clinical Trial ; Review ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Randomized Controlled Trials As Topic ; Brain Injuries, Traumatic -- Therapy
    ISSN: 08977151
    E-ISSN: 1557-9042
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neurotrauma, 25 August 2016
    Description: Living systematic reviews (LSRs) are online summaries of health care research that are updated as new research becomes available. This new development in evidence synthesis is being trialled as part of the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) project. We will develop and sustain an international TBI knowledge community that maintains up-to-date, high quality LSRs of the current state of knowledge in the most important questions in TBI. Automatic search updates will be run three-monthly, and newly identified studies incorporated into the review. Review teams will seek to publish journal updates at regular intervals, with abridged updates available more frequently online. Future project stages include the integration of LSR and other study findings into "living" clinical practice guidance. It is hoped these efforts will go some way to bridging current temporal disconnects between evidence, guidelines, and practice in TBI.
    Keywords: Knowledge Translation ; Living Systematic Reviews ; Traumatic Brain Injury
    ISSN: 08977151
    E-ISSN: 1557-9042
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Implementation Science, 01 August 2012, Vol.7(1), p.74
    Description: Abstract The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program was funded in 2009 to increase the uptake of research evidence in the clinical care of patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury. This paper reports the rationale and plan for this five-year knowledge translation research...
    Keywords: Knowledge Translation Research ; Study Protocol ; Neurotrauma ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1748-5908
    E-ISSN: 1748-5908
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Implementation Science, 2018, Vol.13, pp.urn:issn:1748-5908
    Description: Background: Evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the emergency department (ED) are now widely available, and yet, clinical practice remains inconsistent with the guidelines. The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) intervention was developed to increase...
    Keywords: Mild Head Injury ; Mild Traumatic Brain Injury ; Emergency Medicine ; Implementation Science ; Clinical Practice Guideline ; Evidence-Based Practice ; Cost-Effectiveness ; Traumatic Brain-Injury ; Cost-Effectiveness ; Implementation Strategies ; Health ; Quality ; Consistency ; Depression ; Anxiety ; Very Good
    ISSN: 1748-5908
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neurotrauma, October 2009, Vol.26(10), pp.1623-33
    Description: Recent calls have been made for the inclusion of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in traumatic brain injury studies. This study reports the impact of TBI on traditional measures (general health, depression, social isolation, labor force participation), self-assessed health function status using the SF-36 version 2 (SF-36V2), and self-assessed health preference using two generic utility instruments, the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the SF6D. A random sample of TBI cases (n = 66) was drawn from a trauma registry and matched (gender, age, education, and relationship status) with non-trauma-exposed cases from a population health survey. All participants were interviewed and the two cohorts compared. When compared with matched comparators, TBI cases experienced worse general health, elevated probabilities of depression, social isolation, and worse labor force participation rates. The TBI-cohort reported worse health status on the SF-36V2. The most affected areas were social function, role emotion, and mental health (effect sizes -0.70 to -0.86). The reported utility values indicative of a HRQoL between 13 and 24% worse than their non-TBI contemporaries (effect sizes -0.80 to -0.81). The findings suggest that TBI has long-term consequences across all aspects of peoples' lives, and that these consequences can be self-assessed using generic instruments. The challenge is to provide and evaluate long-term services targeted at the life areas that those with TBI find particularly difficult.
    Keywords: Health Status ; Brain Injuries -- Epidemiology ; Depressive Disorder -- Epidemiology ; Quality of Life -- Psychology
    ISSN: 08977151
    E-ISSN: 1557-9042
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