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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Neurophysiology, November 2014, Vol.125(11), pp.2150-2206
    Description: A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, craving/addiction, and conversion. Despite unavoidable inhomogeneities, there is a sufficient body of evidence to accept with level A (definite efficacy) the analgesic effect of high-frequency (HF) rTMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the pain and the antidepressant effect of HF-rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A Level B recommendation (probable efficacy) is proposed for the antidepressant effect of low-frequency (LF) rTMS of the right DLPFC, HF-rTMS of the left DLPFC for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and LF-rTMS of contralesional M1 in chronic motor stroke. The effects of rTMS in a number of indications reach level C (possible efficacy), including LF-rTMS of the left temporoparietal cortex in tinnitus and auditory hallucinations. It remains to determine how to optimize rTMS protocols and techniques to give them relevance in routine clinical practice. In addition, professionals carrying out rTMS protocols should undergo rigorous training to ensure the quality of the technical realization, guarantee the proper care of patients, and maximize the chances of success. Under these conditions, the therapeutic use of rTMS should be able to develop in the coming years.
    Keywords: Cortex ; Indication ; Neurological Disease ; Neuromodulation ; Noninvasive Brain Stimulation ; Psychiatric Disease ; Tms ; Treatment ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1388-2457
    E-ISSN: 1872-8952
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  • 2
    In: European Heart Journal, 2014, Vol. 35(43), pp.3033-3073
    Description: ACS : acute coronary syndrome AMPLIFY : Apixaban for the Initial Management of Pulmonary Embolism and Deep-Vein Thrombosis as First-line Therapy aPTT : activated partial thromboplastin time b.i.d. : bis in diem (twice daily) b.p.m. : beats per minute BNP : brain natriuretic peptide BP : blood pressure CI : confidence interval CO : cardiac output COPD : chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CPG : Committee for Practice Guidelines CRNM : clinically relevant non-major CT : computed tomographic/tomogram CTEPH : chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension CUS : compression venous ultrasonography DSA : digital subtraction angiography DVT : deep vein thrombosis ELISA : enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ESC : European Society of Cardiology H-FABP : heart-type fatty acid-binding protein HIT : heparin-induced thrombocytopenia HR : hazard ratio ICOPER : International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry ICRP : International Commission on Radiological Protection INR : international normalized ratio iPAH : idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension IVC : inferior vena cava LMWH : low molecular weight heparin LV : left ventricle/left ventricular MDCT : multi-detector computed tomographic (angiography) MRA : magnetic resonance angiography NGAL : neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin NOAC(s) : Non-vitamin K-dependent new oral anticoagulant(s) NT-proBNP : N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide o.d. : omni die (every day) OR : odds ratio PAH : pulmonary arterial hypertension PE : pulmonary embolism PEA : pulmonary endarterectomy PEITHO : Pulmonary EmbolIsm THrOmbolysis trial PESI : pulmonary embolism severity index PH : pulmonary hypertension PIOPED : Prospective Investigation On Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis PVR : pulmonary vascular resistance RIETE : Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad Thromboembolica venosa RR : relative risk rtPA : recombinant tissue plasminogen activator RV : right ventricle/ventricular SPECT : single photon emission computed tomography sPESI : simplified pulmonary embolism severity index TAPSE : tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion Tc : technetium TOE : transoesophageal echocardiography TTR : time in therapeutic range TV : tricuspid valve UFH : unfractionated heparin V/Q scan : ventilation–perfusion scintigraphy VKA : vitamin K antagonist(s) VTE : venous thromboembolism Guidelines summarize and evaluate all available evidence at the time of the writing process, on a particular issue with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient, with a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk-benefit-ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines and recommendations should help the health professionals to make decisions in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with the patient and caregiver as appropriate. A great number of Guidelines have …
    Keywords: Guidelines ; Pulmonary Embolism ; Venous Thrombosis ; Shock ; Hypotension ; Chest Pain ; Dyspnoea ; Heart Failure ; Diagnosis ; Treatment–Anticoagulation ; Thrombolysis
    ISSN: 0195-668X
    E-ISSN: 1522-9645
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 06/2018, Vol.3(6), pp.501-513
    Description: Interoception refers to the process by which the nervous system senses, interprets, and integrates signals originating from within the body, providing a moment-by-moment mapping of the body’s internal landscape across conscious and unconscious levels. Interoceptive signaling has been considered a component process of reflexes, urges, feelings, drives, adaptive responses, and cognitive and emotional experiences, highlighting its contributions to the maintenance of homeostatic functioning, body regulation, and survival. Dysfunction of interoception is increasingly recognized as an important component of different mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, addictive disorders, and somatic symptom disorders. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges have made it difficult for interoceptive constructs to be broadly applied in mental health research and treatment settings. In November 2016, the Laureate Institute for Brain Research organized the first Interoception Summit, a gathering of interoception experts from around the world, with the goal of accelerating progress in understanding the role of interoception in mental health. The discussions at the meeting were organized around four themes: interoceptive assessment, interoceptive integration, interoceptive psychopathology, and the generation of a roadmap that could serve as a guide for future endeavors. This review article presents an overview of the emerging consensus generated by the meeting.
    Keywords: Biomarker ; Computational Psychiatry ; Interoception ; Mental Health ; Research Domain Criteria ; Treatment;
    ISSN: 24519022
    E-ISSN: 24519030
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