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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Forest Research, 2011, Vol.130(5), pp.695-706
    Description: The aim of this study was to investigate transpiration and its main driving factors on the example of a hybrid poplar plantation with the clone Populus maximowiczii × P. nigra , cv. Max 1 on a site in the hilly loess region of Saxony (Germany). Transpiration was measured using sap flow techniques during the 2007 and 2008 growing season. At the same time, throughfall, soil moisture dynamics and soil physical properties were also measured. Total transpiration rates amounted to 486 mm and 463 mm, respectively, during the 2 years. Maximum daily transpiration rates reached 6.7 mm/day, while an average of 2.2 mm/day for the entire growing season was recorded. The main controlling factors for stand transpiration included the evaporative demand, water availability and soil temperature. The information was implemented into a simple empirical model for the prediction of transpiration. It can be concluded that large-scale establishment of poplar plantations will result in a distinct reduction in groundwater recharge. On the other hand, surface run-off and soil erosion may decrease. Due to limited water availability in the late growing season, the growth potential of the tested clone cannot fully be exploited at many sites in Germany.
    Keywords: Evapotranspiration ; Soil water ; Poplar ; Plantation ; Sap flow
    ISSN: 1612-4669
    E-ISSN: 1612-4677
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 November 2016, Vol.7(12), p.302
    Description: A growing interest in using forest biomass for bioenergy generation may stimulate intensive harvesting scenarios in Germany. We calculated and compared nutrient exports of conventional stem only (SO), whole tree without needles (WT excl. needles), and whole tree (WT) harvesting in two medium aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands differing in productivity, and related them to soil nutrient pools and fluxes at the study sites. We established allometric biomass functions for each aboveground tree compartment and analyzed their nutrient contents. We analyzed soil nutrient stocks, estimated weathering rates, and obtained deposition and seepage data from nearby Level II stations. WT (excl. needles) and WT treatments cause nutrient losses 1.5 to 3.6 times higher than SO, while the biomass gain is only 1.18 to 1.25 in case of WT (excl. needles) and 1.28 to 1.30 in case of WT in the pine and spruce stand, respectively. Within the investigated 25-year period, WT harvesting would cause exports of N, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ of 6.6, 8.8, 5.4, and 0.8 kg·ha−1 in the pine stand and 13.9, 7.0, 10.6, and 1.8 kg·ha−1 in the spruce stand annually. The relative impact of WT and WT (excl. needles) on the nutrient balance is similar in the pine and spruce stands, despite differences in stand productivities, and thus the absolute amount of nutrients removed. In addition to the impact of intensive harvesting, both sites are characterized by high seepage losses of base cations, further impairing the nutrient budget. While intensive biomass extraction causes detrimental effects on many key soil ecological properties, our calculations may serve to implement measures to improve the nutrient balance in forested ecosystems.
    Keywords: Spruce ; Pine ; Thinning ; Aboveground Biomass ; Energetic Use ; Stand Growth ; Nutrient Contents ; Nutrient Accumulation ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 June 2015, Vol.6(6), pp.1949-1965
    Description: A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany), the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.
    Keywords: Birch ; Spruce ; Tree Species Effects ; Ph-Value ; Soil Respiration ; Humus ; Topsoil ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2004, Vol.264(1), pp.13-24
    Description: Water-plant relations play a key role in the water cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, changes in tree species composition may have distinct effects on the water retention capacity as well as on the pattern of streamflow generation. Such changes may result from modified interception properties and transpiration related to differences in canopy properties and root distribution. In order to evaluate the potential hydrological effects of the current silvicultural conversion from monocultural conifer stands into mixed or pure deciduous stands the hydrological model BROOK90 was applied to two forested upland catchments in Germany. The Rotherdbach catchment (9.4 ha, 93 yr-old Norway spruce) is situated in the Eastern Ore Mountains. The Schluchsee catchment (11 ha, 55-yr-old Norway spruce) is located in the higher altitudes of the Black Forest. The calibrated model is capable to describe rather well the temporal variation of streamflow but also the portions of the individual flow components. Data for a beech scenario were adapted for each site using a standard parameter set for deciduous trees provided by BROOK90 . The annual discharge in the fictional beech stand at Rotherdbach is 30 to 50% higher compared to spruce with an increase of soil moisture and especially the slow streamflow components. This mainly results from low interception rates during winter time. In contrast, the spruce stand has a permanently higher interception rate. Effects of tree species conversion are moderate at Schluchsee. The annual discharge of a fictional beech stand at Schluchsee is 7 to 14% higher compared to spruce. There in contrast to Rotherdbach, effects of tree species conversion on soil moisture dynamics are small since vertical percolation in the highly permeable soil dominates and precipitation is abundant. Practical forestry will favorably establish mixed beech–spruce rather than pure beech stands. However, it is critical to simulate mixed stands with BROOK90 . Therefore, a simple summation of model results from spruce and beech according to their respective area in a fictional mixed stand can only be a first approximation. Advanced hydrological simulation of mixed stand conditions should regard interactions of tree species and spatial parameter distribution. However, this is not yet feasible due to a distinct lack of information. As a consequence, there is a strong need to collect relevant hydrological and ecophysiological data in mixed stands in the future.
    Keywords: beech ; BROOK90 ; forest transformation ; model forecast ; spruce ; streamflow
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2015, Vol.178(3), pp.486-498
    Description: Vegetation restoration efforts (planting trees and grass) have been effective in controlling soil erosion on the Loess Plateau (NW China). Shifts in land cover result in modifications of soil properties. Yet, whether the hydraulic properties have also been improved by vegetation restoration is still not clear. The objective of this paper was to understand how vegetation restoration alters soil structure and related soil hydraulic properties such as permeability and soil water storage capacity. Three adjacent sites with similar soil texture, soil type, and topography, but different land cover (black locust forest, grassland, and cropland) were selected in a typical small catchment in the middle reaches of the Yellow River (Loess Plateau). Seasonal variation of soil hydraulic properties in topsoil and subsoil were examined. Our study revealed that land‐use type had a significant impact on field‐saturated, near‐saturated hydraulic conductivity, and soil water characteristics. Specifically, conversion from cropland to grass or forests promotes infiltration capacity as a result of increased saturated hydraulic conductivity, air capacity, and macroporosity. Moreover, conversion from cropland to forest tends to promote the creation of mesopores, which increase soil water‐storage capacity. Tillage of cropland created temporarily well‐structured topsoil but compacted subsoil as indicated by low subsoil saturated hydraulic conductivity, air capacity, and plant‐available water capacity. No impact of land cover conversion on unsaturated hydraulic conductivities at suction 〉 300 cm was found indicating that changes in land cover do not affect functional meso‐ and microporosity. Our work demonstrates that changes in soil hydraulic properties resulting from soil conservation efforts need to be considered when soil conservation measures shall be implemented in water‐limited regions. For ensuring the sustainability of such measures, the impact of soil conversion on water resources and hydrological processes needs to be further investigated.
    Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity ; Land‐Use Change ; Loess Plateau ; Tillage ; Water Retention Curve
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural and forest meteorology, 2013, Vol.178, pp.66-74
    Description: Although forestation has been encouraged worldwide for the benefit of forest ecosystem services, it can lead to a reduction in runoff. As site conditions also strongly contribute to this runoff reduction, site selection has been suggested in order to mitigate this negative effect of forestation. Up to now it is not clear, however, which catchment parameters play key roles in the water budget and runoff responses to forestation. In this study, two plots within an experimental basin in the Liupan Mountains, NW China, were chosen, and the eco-hydrological model BROOK90 (Version 3.25) was used to quantify the effects of slope (gradient, aspect) and soil (thickness) parameters on water flow after forestation. The simulation showed that the annual flow in a larch plantation was strongly affected by soil thickness and lightly affected by aspect and gradient. When the soil thickness increased from 30cm to 70cm, the annual flow in the larch plantation rapidly declined from 91mm/yr to 56mm/yr. When the soil depth was greater than 70cm, however, the annual runoff was no longer sensitive to soil thickness. With respect to a forestation strategy, this means that trees preferentially should be planted on sites with thinner soil so as to lessen the impact of runoff reduction after forestation and, thus, alleviate the forest-water conflicts in dryland regions. The trade-off between a possible reduction in tree-growth on thinner soil on the one hand and an increase in runoff on the other, however, remains an open question for future interdisciplinary research. ; p. 66-74.
    Keywords: Forests ; Soil Depth ; Mountains ; Interdisciplinary Research ; Ecosystem Services ; Runoff ; Arid Lands ; Trees ; Water Flow ; Watersheds ; Water Balance
    ISSN: 0168-1923
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 15 September 2013, Vol.178-179, pp.66-74
    Description: ► Quantifying the effects of site conditions on water flow after forestation. ► Field observations in combination with a BROOK90 simulation. ► Aspect and gradient slightly affect water budget from forest stands. ► But soil thickness strongly influences the flow from forest stand. Although forestation has been encouraged worldwide for the benefit of forest ecosystem services, it can lead to a reduction in runoff. As site conditions also strongly contribute to this runoff reduction, site selection has been suggested in order to mitigate this negative effect of forestation. Up to now it is not clear, however, which catchment parameters play key roles in the water budget and runoff responses to forestation. In this study, two plots within an experimental basin in the Liupan Mountains, NW China, were chosen, and the eco-hydrological model BROOK90 (Version 3.25) was used to quantify the effects of slope (gradient, aspect) and soil (thickness) parameters on water flow after forestation. The simulation showed that the annual flow in a larch plantation was strongly affected by soil thickness and lightly affected by aspect and gradient. When the soil thickness increased from 30 cm to 70 cm, the annual flow in the larch plantation rapidly declined from 91 mm/yr to 56 mm/yr. When the soil depth was greater than 70 cm, however, the annual runoff was no longer sensitive to soil thickness. With respect to a forestation strategy, this means that trees preferentially should be planted on sites with thinner soil so as to lessen the impact of runoff reduction after forestation and, thus, alleviate the forest-water conflicts in dryland regions. The trade-off between a possible reduction in tree-growth on thinner soil on the one hand and an increase in runoff on the other, however, remains an open question for future interdisciplinary research.
    Keywords: Water Budget ; Aspect ; Slope ; Soil Thickness ; Brook90 Model ; Sensitivity Analysis ; Agriculture ; Meteorology & Climatology
    ISSN: 0168-1923
    E-ISSN: 1873-2240
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2009, Vol.258(10), pp.2163-2174
    Description: Knowledge of site-specific water conditions is important in forestland evaluation and fundamental for a sustainable forest management. In Central Europe, traditional site mapping has followed an integrated ecological approach. The assessment of soil water availability is based on overlaying relief and descriptive soil information. It is a relative system referring to an (hypothetical) equilibrium between relief-dependent soil conditions and the potential natural forest association at a given regional climate. Accordingly, the climatic settings are supposed to be constant and are mostly based on long-term means of precipitation and air temperature. However, long-term climate changes, as well as infrequent climatic extremes have not been considered adequately. Furthermore, the feedback of forest management itself on available soil water cannot be addressed. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed an approach in which the soil hydrological model LWF-BROOK90 is organized in a GIS-frame to simulate the daily water fluxes and soil moisture status. Spatially distributed meteorological input data is generated from long-term station data using special regionalization procedures. Model parameterization for soil physical properties by horizon are derived from detailed forest soil maps using pedotransfer functions. Thus, we obtained data on all components of the water balance depending on climate, aspect, slope, vertical soil properties, and stand conditions in a spatial resolution of 25 m × 25 m. In addition to the common output of site water balance models, additional indicators were implemented to enable the quantification of ‘transpiration stress’, ‘soil drought stress’, and ‘excess soil water stress’. Soil water evaluation is based on the number of days exceeding defined thresholds of parameter values. The implemented soil water indices were suitable to reflect relevant differences in the soil water conditions between sites whereas focusing on individual and extreme years rather than on long-term averages seems to be more appropriate for assessing water-related tree growth conditions. The next step will be to produce forest site maps based on such ‘stress’ indicators. The novel approach provides a more objective description of variable soil water conditions than the currently used mapping approach. Furthermore, it makes spatial hydrological data (e.g. groundwater recharge) available for use beyond forest management.
    Keywords: Forest Site Mapping ; Forest Site Evaluation ; Forest Climatology ; Soil Water Modelling ; Eco-Hydrology ; Hydropedology ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 9
    In: Land Degradation & Development, July 2016, Vol.27(5), pp.1334-1343
    Description: During the 20th century, afforestation resulted in plantations of Pine and Eucalypt becoming the main crops in north‐central Portugal with associated and well‐known soil water repellency (SWR). The aim of this study was to improve the insights in the temporal dynamics and abrupt transitions in water repellency of the topsoil and the mechanism that determine the behaviour of SWR. Topsoil water repellency was monitored in the Caramulo Mountains (north‐central Portugal) between July 2011 and June 2012. The intensity of SWR was measured at soil depths of 0, 2.5 and 7.5 cm using the ‘molarity of an ethanol droplet’ test. Volumetric soil moisture content was monitored using a Decagon ECHO EC‐5 probe. SWR behaviour broadly followed five alternating dry and wet periods during the 12‐month period, with more pronounced differences in the Pine site than in the Eucalypt site. SWR under Eucalypt was substantially more temporally dynamic than under Pine, with double the number of moderate and large SWR changes at the 7.5 cm depth. Soil moisture content and antecedent rainfall were better correlated to SWR under Pine than under Eucalypt, although in both cases insufficient to predict the temporal variations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Hydrophobicity ; Monitoring ; Transition Zone ; Soil Moisture Content ; Rainfall
    ISSN: 1085-3278
    E-ISSN: 1099-145X
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  • 10
    Language: German
    Description: Ein einzigartiger Bildband reich an Beispielen der maßgeblichen Bodentypen. Im Fokus: die Waldgebiete Österreichs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz. Zu jedem Bodenprofil sind umfassende Daten zu über 40 Bodenmerkmalen angeführt, die anschaulich aufbereitet und interpretiert sind. Zusammen mit Kommentaren...
    Keywords: Forest Soils -- Austria -- Composition ; Forest Soils -- Germany -- Composition ; Forest Soils -- Switzerland -- Composition ; Trees -- Growth ; Forest Management ; Science ; Chemistry ; The Environment ; Agriculture & Farming ; Soil Science & Management
    ISBN: 9783527327133
    E-ISSN: 97835276
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