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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2010, Vol.408(20), pp.4702-4711
    Description: Using , we analyzed the network structure and ecological relationships in an urban water metabolic system. We developed an ecological network model for the system, and used Beijing as an example of analysis based on the model. We used network throughflow analysis to determine the flows among components, and measured both indirect and direct flows. Using a network utility matrix, we determined the relationships and degrees of mutualism among six compartments – 1) local environment, 2) rainwater collection, 3) industry, 4) agriculture, 5) domestic sector, and 6) wastewater recycling – which represent producer, consumer, and reducer trophic levels. The capacity of producers to provide water for Beijing decreased from 2003 to 2007, and consumer demand for water decreased due to decreasing industrial and agricultural demand; the recycling capacity of reducers also improved, decreasing the discharge pressure on the environment. The ecological relationships associated with the local environment or the wastewater recycling sector changed little from 2003 to 2007. From 2003 to 2005, the main changes in the ecological relationships among components of Beijing's water metabolic system mostly occurred between the local environment, the industrial and agricultural sectors, and the domestic sector, but by 2006 and 2007, the major change was between the local environment, the agricultural sector, and the industrial sector. The other ecological relationships did not change during the study period. Although Beijing's mutualism indices remained generally stable, the ecological relationships among compartments changed greatly. Our analysis revealed ways to further optimize this system and the relationships among compartments, thereby optimizing future urban water resources development.
    Keywords: Urban Ecological Networks ; Urban Water Metabolism ; Throughflow Analysis ; Utility Analysis ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 June 2015, Vol.306, pp.174-184
    Description: China's Shandong Lubei eco-industrial park was approved for construction in 2003, just after the first national eco-industrial demonstration parks were confirmed by China's State Environmental Protection Administration in 2002. It has therefore been recognized around the world as a successful example of an industrial symbiosis system. The park's success results from the harmonious and coordinated relationships among its members. Analyzing the ecological characteristics of these relationships and identifying the resulting advantages provide a basis for improving the park's efficiency and examining other parks. In this paper, we analyzed the flows of sulfur in the Lubei park (as an example of typical flows) using ecological network analysis to describe this industrial symbiosis system. The integrated analysis of the utility resulting from direct and indirect exchanges of byproducts and wastes can reflect the ecological relationships among members within the system. Based on these ecological relationships, members can be divided into producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers; the integral flow weight for each level of the hierarchy can then be compared to reveal the system's overall ecological structure. By examining the exchanges of resources within the system, we can describe the ecological connotations of the symbiosis and how these ecological relationships influence the overall development and resource flows within the system.
    Keywords: Industrial Symbiosis ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Utility Analysis ; Lubei Eco-Industrial Park ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 2010, Vol.221(16), pp.1865-1879
    Description: Urban metabolism research faces difficulties defining ecological trophic levels and analyzing relationships among the metabolic system's energy components. Here, we propose a new way to perform such research. By integrating throughflow analysis with ecological network utility analysis, we used network flows to analyze the metabolic system's network structure and the ecological relationships within the system. We developed an ecological network model for the system, and used four Chinese cities as examples of how this approach provides insights into the flows within the system at both high and low levels of detail. Using the weight distribution in the network flow matrix, we determined the structure of the urban energy metabolic system and the trophic levels; using the sign distribution in the network utility matrix, we determined the relationships between each pair of the system's compartments and their degrees of mutualism. The model uses compartments based on 17 sectors (energy exploitation; coal-fired power; heat supply; washed coal; coking; oil refinery; gas generation; coal products; agricultural; industrial; construction; communication, storage, and postal service; wholesale, retail, accommodation, and catering; household; other consuming; recovery; and energy stocks). Analyzing the structure and functioning of the urban energy metabolic system revealed ways to optimize its structure by adjusting the relationships among compartments, thereby demonstrating how ecological network analysis can be used in future urban system research.
    Keywords: Urban Metabolism ; Energy Metabolism ; Network Analysis ; Throughflow Analysis ; Utility Analysis ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Applied Energy, 15 January 2017, Vol.186, pp.96-114
    Description: In recent years, news of “cancer villages” in the Huaihe River Basin filled front and back pages of newspapers and generated elevated concern among readers. This study aims to understand the relationship between the “cancer villages” and the “large cities” around them. A gravity model is constructed to analyze the correlation between “big cities” and “cancer villages” in terms of indices involving economic connections and pollution frequency. Direct and indirect environmental relationships between large cities and “cancer villages” are analyzed using ecological network analysis, in particular the utility analysis method. Results of the pollution-utility analysis showed that cities distant from “cancer villages” can also affect the county through indirect connections. Based on the pollution utility relationship, we found that “cancer villages” both affect and are affected by cities through indirect feedback relationships. It can be inferred that “cancer villages” have a high incidence of malignant disease not only because of the pollution from its surrounding cities but also because of the influence of far-away cities through a network of interactions. In this way, the pollution of “cancer villages” may be heightened with harmful consequences to population health. Considering these indirect connections, not all of the “cancer villages” are able to reduce their pollution by transferring it to another city or county because it can return through indirect pathways. The best approach would be to lower the pollution generation in the first place in order to prevent its impacts, as well as to at least partially mitigate them through more effective medical care.
    Keywords: Cancer Villages ; City ; Huaihe River Basin ; Gravity Model ; Utility Analysis ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0306-2619
    E-ISSN: 1872-9118
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 1998, Vol.107(2), pp.127-143
    Description: Traditional evolutionary theory depicts survival of the fittest as a difficult existence based on danger, conflict and strife. But, another view is emerging of a more synergistic organization in which ecosystems on the whole provide hospitable conditions for life. This world is populated by organisms mutually adapted and beneficial by virtue of their direct and indirect interactions. Many examples of mutualism have been explicitly observed (Bronstein, J.L., 1991. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Am. 72, 6–8; Cushman, J.H., Beattie, A.J., 1991. Trends Ecol. Evol. 6, 193–195; Casti, J.L., Karlqvist, A. (Eds.), 1995. Cooperation and Conflict in General Evolutionary Processes, Wiley, New York, 435 pp.), and we view mutualism as an implicit consequence of indirect interactions and ecosystem organization. This paper extends a methodology based on input-output analysis that models these synergistic relationships (Patten, B.C., 1991. Theoretical Studies of Ecosystems: The Network Perspective, pp. 288–351; Patten, B.C., 1992. Ecol. Modell. 62, 29–69). We show for simple storage-flow models that direct zero-sum resource transactions between organisms, when considered in context of the whole-system organization, produce integral (direct plus indirect) relationships more positive than the direct ones. This phenomenon, `network synergism', is demonstrated for two simple networks and a complete three component model. We also show, by looking at a limiting case, that system-wide synergism is ubiquitous, occurring in all models of any size or complexity. Network synergism emerges in these models because of three network properties: symmetry, indirectness and openness.
    Keywords: Indirect Effects ; Interaction Webs ; Mutualism ; Network Analysis ; Synergism ; Utility Analysis ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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