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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Cardiovascular Research, 2008, Vol. 77(3), pp.544-550
    Description: AIMS: The endothelium represents a natural site of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection involved in viral spreading and persistence. Moreover, HCMV infection of endothelial cells has been associated with different pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system. Here, the influence of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) was investigated on HCMV replication in human umbilical vein endothelial cells alone or in combination with the antiviral drugs ganciclovir, cidofovir or foscarnet.METHODS AND RESULTS: HCMV replication was observed by immunostaining for viral antigens and by virus yield assay. Protein expression and phosphorylation were examined by western blot. Cell viability was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Therapeutic VPA concentrations (〈 or =1 mM) increased HCMV immediate early antigen, late antigen, and viral titres of different endotheliotropic and non-endotheliotropic HCMV strains in a concentration- and time-dependent manner up to 30-fold. Moreover, VPA impaired the antiviral activity of the anti-HCMV drugs ganciclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet. VPA inhibits histone deacetylases (HDAC) and induces HDAC-independently extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2) phosphorylation in endothelial cells. Both effects observed, HCMV stimulation and interference with antiviral drugs, depend on HDAC inhibition but not on ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest to carefully monitor the frequency of HCMV reactivation in cardiovascular patients treated with VPA (or other HDAC inhibitors) in comparison to control individuals.
    Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus ; Antiviral Therapy ; Endothelium
    ISSN: 0008-6363
    E-ISSN: 1755-3245
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical Pharmacology, 2004, Vol.68(3), pp.531-538
    Description: Valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid, VPA), an effective inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC) is used for the treatment of epilepsia. In this study, structure–activity relationships for the action of structurally modified VPA derivatives on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication and HDAC inhibition were defined. Pretreatment of human foreskin fibroblasts with VPA (0.125–1 mM) caused a concentration-dependent increase of HCMV immediate early and antigen late antigen expression. Structure–activity relationships of VPA derivatives for HCMV stimulation were compared to those for teratogenic action and those for HDAC inhibition. Side chain elongation and introduction of a triple bond in 4-position of the other chain caused teratogenicity, stimulated HCMV replication, and increased HDAC inhibition, as demonstrated by enhanced levels of acetylated histones. Teratogenic VPA derivatives with a branched chain in 3-position as well as a non-teratogenic anticonvulsive active VPA derivative did not stimulate HCMV or accumulation of acetylated histones. This demonstrates a strict correlation between inhibition of HDAC and increased HCMV replication.
    Keywords: Valproic Acid ; Human Cytomegalovirus ; Histone Deacetylases ; Teratogenicity ; Structure–Activity Relationship ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-2952
    E-ISSN: 1873-2968
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, September 2005, Vol.46(9), pp.3451-7
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication depends on different cellular pathways, including histone acetylation and extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk 1/2). In the present study, the influence of therapeutic valproic acid (VPA) concentrations was investigated on HCMV replication in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. HCMV antigen expression and replication were detected by immunostaining, real-time RT-PCR, and determination of virus titers. Histone acetylation and Erk 1/2 phosphorylation were detected by Western blot. Pretreatment with VPA 〈 or =1 mM enhanced HCMV antigen expression and replication by up to ninefold. In addition to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, VPA stimulated Erk 1/2 phosphorylation in RPE cells. Investigation of six VPA derivatives revealed that S-2-pentyl-4-pentynoic acid was the only derivative that induced histone hyperacetylation, indicating HDAC inhibition, in the observed concentrations 〈 or =1 mM and that increased HCMV antigen expression. Other derivatives did not enhance HCMV replication in the tested concentrations, although some were found to induce Erk 1/2 phosphorylation. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 inhibited VPA-induced Erk 1/2 phosphorylation but did not affect VPA-induced increased HCMV replication. In addition, the structurally nonrelated HDACI trichostatin A enhanced HCMV replication but did not affect Erk 1/2 phosphorylation in RPE cells. The data demonstrate that VPA stimulates HCMV replication by HDAC inhibition independent of Erk 1/2 phosphorylation in therapeutic concentrations in RPE cells. Therefore, patients at risk of HCMV retinitis who are treated with VPA or other HDAC inhibitors should be carefully monitored.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors ; Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; Enzyme Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Pigment Epithelium of Eye -- Virology ; Valproic Acid -- Pharmacology ; Virus Replication -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 0146-0404
    E-ISSN: 15525783
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