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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2014, Vol.499, pp.546-559
    Description: Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA–Veolia partnership 1998–2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat–maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic properties were optimized on one calibration year (2007/08) using pressure head, water content and lysimeter outflow data, and then tested on the whole 2004/2010 period. Lysimeter outflow and water content dynamics in the soil profile were correctly described for the whole period (model efficiency coefficient: 0.99) after some correction of LAI estimates for wheat (2005/06) and barley (2006/07). Using laboratory-measured degradation rates and assuming degradation only in the liquid phase caused large overestimation of simulated isoproturon losses in lysimeter outflow. A proper order of magnitude of isoproturon losses was obtained after considering that degradation occurred in solid (sorbed) phase at a rate 75% of that in liquid phase. Isoproturon concentrations were found to be highly sensitive to degradation rates. Neither the laboratory-measured isoproturon fate parameters nor the independently-derived soil hydraulic parameters could describe the actual multiannual field dynamics of water and isoproturon without calibration. However, once calibrated on a limited period of time (9 months), HYDRUS-2D was able to simulate the whole 6-year time series with good accuracy.
    Keywords: Soil Heterogeneity ; Water Flow ; Isoproturon ; Numerical Modeling ; Hydrus-2d ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 2011, Vol.403(1), pp.141-156
    Description: ► A surface-subsurface flow model with multi-objective global optimization is presented. ► The model performance was evaluated using bench-scale flow experiments. ► Inverse parameter estimation required observations at different spatial positions. ► The Pareto trade-off and model mismatch suggest lateral flow in soil layers. ► The model system is versatile for studying soil water and overland flow. A comprehensive description of water flow in environmental and agricultural systems requires an account of both surface and subsurface pathways. We present a new model which combines a 1D overland flow model and the 2D subsurface flow HYDRUS-2D model, and uses the multi-objective global search method AMALGAM for inverse parameter estimation. Furthermore, we present data from bench-scale flow experiments which were conducted with two 5-m long replicate soil channels. While rainfall was applied, surface runoff was recorded at the downstream end of the soil channel, subsurface drainage waters were sampled at three positions equally spaced along the channels, and pressure heads were recorded at five depths. The experimental observations were used to evaluate the performance of our modeling system. The complexity of the modeling approach was increased in three steps. First, only runoff and total drainage were simulated, then drainage flows from individual compartments were additionally evaluated, and finally a surface crust and immobile soil water were also considered. The results showed that a good match between measured and observed surface runoff and total drainage does not guarantee accurate representation of the flow process. An inspection of the Pareto results of different multiobjective calibration runs revealed a significant trade-off between individual objectives, showing that no single solution existed to match spatial variability in the flow. In spite of the observed crust formation, its consideration in the more complex model structure did not significantly improve the fit between the model and measurements. Accounting for immobile water regions only slightly improved the fit for one of the two replicate soil channels. Discrepancies between relatively complex model simulations and seemingly simple soil channel experiments suggest the presence of additional unknowns, such as heterogeneity of the soil hydraulic properties. Nevertheless, with its versatile subsurface options and powerful inverse method, the model system shows promise for studying hillslope flow problems involving both surface runoff and subsurface flow.
    Keywords: Overland Flow ; Surface Runoff ; Multi-Objective Global Parameter Optimization ; Mobile–Immobile Model ; Simulation ; Flow Channel Experiment ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 April 2016, Vol.268, pp.29-40
    Description: Compost amendments and tillage practices can modify soil structure and create heterogeneities at the local scale. Tillage affects soil physical properties and consequently water and solute transport in soil, while compost addition to soil influences pesticide sorption and degradation processes. Based on the long-term field experiment QualiAgro (a INRA–Veolia partnership), a modeling study was carried out using HYDRUS-2D to evaluate how two different compost types combined with the presence of heterogeneities due to tillage affect water and isoproturon dynamics in soil compared to a control plot. A municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW) have been applied to experimental plots. In each plot, wick lysimeters, TDR probes, and tensiometers were installed to monitor water and solute dynamics. In the plowed layer, four zones differing in their structure were identified: compacted clods, non-compacted soil, interfurrows, and the plow pan. From 2004 to 2010, the unamended control (CONT) plot had the largest cumulative water outflow (1388 mm) compared to the MSW plot (962 mm) and SGW plot (979 mm). After calibration, the model was able to describe cumulative water outflow for the whole 2004–2010 period with a model efficiency value of 0.99 for all three plots. The CONT plot had the largest isoproturon cumulated leaching (21.31 μg) while similar cumulated isoproturon leaching was measured in the SGW (0.663 μg) and MSW (0.245 μg) plots. The model was able to simulate isoproturon leaching patterns except for the large preferential flow events that were observed in the MSW and CONT plots. The timing of these preferential flow events could be reproduced by the model but not their magnitude. Modeling results indicate that spatial and temporal variations in pesticide degradation rate due to tillage and compost application play a major role in the dynamics of isoproturon leaching. Both types of compost were found to reduce isoproturon leaching on the 6 year duration of the experiment.
    Keywords: Soil Heterogeneity ; Compost Amendments ; Conventional Tillage ; Water Flow ; Isoproturon ; Hydrus-2d ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2014, Vol.499, pp.533-545
    Description: The ability of three models (PEARL, MACRO and PRZM) to describe the water transfer and leaching of the herbicides S-metolachlor and mesotrione as observed in an irrigated maize monoculture system in Toulouse area (France) was compared. The models were parameterized with field, laboratory and...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Pesticide Fate Models ; Model Comparison ; Field Experiment ; Herbicide ; S-Metolachlor ; Mesotrione ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Hrvatske Vode, 2016, Vol.95, pp.19-2
    Description: The structural soil heterogeneity caused by agro-technical measures can have a large impact on waterflow and sediment transfer. The main objective of the paper was to evaluate how the presence of different structural zones in the soil’s arable...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Water Flow ; Hydrus-2d ; Isoproturon Transport ; Soil Cultivation ; Compost Application ; Numerical Modelling
    ISSN: 1330-1144
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: EGU General Assembly 2016 Conference Abstracts, European Geophysical Union, 2016, Vol.18
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Compost Amendment ; Soil Heterogeneity ; Conventional Tillage ; Water Flow ; Isoproturon ; Hydrus-2d
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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