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  • Women
  • MEDLINE/PubMed (NLM)  (8)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied Nursing Research, 2008, Vol.21(3), pp.165-168
    Description: This article describes a team-based approach to the development of a comprehensive codebook for multiple researchers to use during content analysis of the transcripts of the expressive writings of women (in this study, = 89) with metastatic breast cancer. The codebook structure was developed iteratively by reaching a consensus on the analysis of shared transcripts to create an all-encompassing set of codes, with definitions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and exemplar text from the transcripts. The Qualitative Solutions and Research International NVivo software program was used to maintain an electronic database of the consensus analysis of transcripts, information about each code, and a detailed log about the process of developing the codebook. The team ultimately created a comprehensive codebook that contained 27 codes with definitions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and example text. The codes were verified by each team member through reanalysis of a set of shared transcripts that had been previously coded using an earlier version of the codebook. The team met to discuss individual coding and reached a consensus on the final version of the codebook. No new code was identified during the reanalysis, and there was fairly uniform agreement on the coding. The final version of the codebook will be used to guide each team member's individual analysis of the remaining (74) transcripts, which will be divided among the team. Periodic meetings are planned to discuss the individual analysis and to resolve any issue associated with using the codebook. As new codes are identified and agreed upon by the team, they will be added to the codebook. A team-based approach can facilitate the development of a practical and accurate codebook to guide the analysis of a large amount of qualitative data.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Nursing
    ISSN: 0897-1897
    E-ISSN: 1532-8201
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Health Psychology, 2016, Vol.35(6), pp.584-593
    Description: Objective: Coping processes directed toward avoiding and approaching stressor-related thoughts and emotions predict psychological adjustment. However, few studies have examined how the relationship between dispositional emotional tendencies and stressor-specific coping affects outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of dispositional emotional expressivity (i.e., the propensity to experience and express emotions strongly) with cancer-specific coping through avoidance and emotional approach to predict intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms in Latinas with breast cancer. Method: Recently diagnosed Latina breast cancer patients receiving treatment completed standardized assessments via interview at 2 time points: within 18 months of diagnosis (Time 1; N = 95) and 3 months later (Time 2; N = 79). Results: Most women were immigrants (93%), reported a combined household income of $20,000 or less (75%), did not graduate from high school (59%), and primarily spoke Spanish (88%). In path analyses, more recent immigration was associated with greater dispositional expressivity, which in turn was associated with coping with the cancer experience using both greater avoidance and emotional approach strategies. Only avoidance-oriented strategies predicted an increase in intrusive thoughts at 3 months. No significant effects on depressive symptoms were observed. Conclusions: Findings suggest that Latina breast cancer patients who have a propensity to experience and express emotions strongly may be initially overwhelmed by their cancer-related emotions and consequently turn to avoidance-oriented and emotional approach strategies to cope with their diagnosis. Avoidance-oriented coping in turn may uniquely predict an increase in cancer-related intrusive thoughts 3 months later.
    Keywords: Avoidance ; Approach ; Breast Cancer ; Coping ; Latina
    ISSN: 0278-6133
    E-ISSN: 1930-7810
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2016, Vol.125(3), pp.349-355
    Description: The propensity to acquire and retain conditioned fear responses may contribute to the risk of developing and maintaining posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event. There is growing evidence that the gonadal hormones estrogen and progesterone are associated with how well women retain extinction of previously conditioned fear responses. Thus, sex steroid effects may contribute to the increased prevalence of PTSD in women. For the current study, 32 nonmedicated female trauma survivors with and without PTSD completed a differential fear conditioning task both during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle when estradiol and progesterone levels are low, and during the midluteal phase when estradiol and progesterone levels are high. Skin conductance served as the measure of conditioned fear. Women with PTSD, compared to those without, showed impaired retention of extinction learning in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the impact of menstrual phase on extinction retention may differ between women with and without PTSD. These findings raise potential considerations regarding the coordination of psychopharmacologic and trauma exposure-based treatments for PTSD with specific phases of the menstrual cycle. ; This study suggests that women with PTSD are vulnerable to problems with retaining extinction of previously conditioned fear responses during the phase of the menstrual cycle when estradiol and progesterone are relatively high. This pattern of responding differs from women who have experienced trauma, but do not meet criteria for PTSD.
    Keywords: Extinction Retention ; Menstrual Cycle ; Estradiol ; Progesterone ; Ptsd
    ISSN: 0021-843X
    E-ISSN: 1939-1846
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2013, Vol.5(2), pp.158-166
    Description: The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women's health.
    Keywords: Race ; Women ; Partner Violence ; Physical Health ; Moderation
    ISSN: 1942-9681
    E-ISSN: 1942-969X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(8), p.e101604
    Description: Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 20) was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS ≥ 8) was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C ≥ 50) was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT ≥ 5) was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16-24) reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2%) compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of psychiatry, May 2002, Vol.159(5), pp.789-96
    Description: This study examined whether there were differences in the rate of depressive and anxiety disorders between HIV-infected women (N=93) and a comparison group of uninfected women (N=62). Secondary objectives were to examine correlates of depression in HIV-infected women-including HIV disease stage and protease inhibitor use-and the associations between symptoms of depression or anxiety and other potential predictor variables. Subjects underwent extensive semiannual clinical, psychiatric, neuropsychological, and immunological evaluations. Depressive and anxiety disorder diagnoses were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (the 17-item version and a modified 11-item version) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, respectively. The rate of current major depressive disorder was four times higher in HIV-seropositive women (19.4%) than in HIV-seronegative women (4.8%). Mean depressive symptom scores on the 17-item Hamilton depression scale also were significantly higher, overall, in the HIV-infected women (mean=8.7, SD=8.0) relative to comparison subjects (mean=3.3, SD=5.8). There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of anxiety disorders. However, HIV-seropositive women had significantly higher anxiety symptom scores (mean=8.8, SD=8.9) than did HIV-seronegative women (mean=3.6, SD=5.5). Both groups had similar substance abuse/dependence histories, but adjusting for this factor had little impact on the relationship of HIV status to current major depressive disorder. HIV-seropositive women without current substance abuse exhibited a significantly higher rate of major depressive disorder and more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did a group of HIV-seronegative women with similar demographic characteristics. These controlled, clinical findings extend recent epidemiologic findings and underscore the importance of adequate assessment and treatment of depression and anxiety in HIV-infected women.
    Keywords: Anxiety Disorders -- Epidemiology ; Depressive Disorder -- Epidemiology ; HIV Infections -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 15357228
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of psychiatry, October 2002, Vol.159(10), pp.1752-9
    Description: Clinical and epidemiology studies have implicated depression as a risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of many human diseases. This study sought to determine if depression was associated with alterations in cellular immunity variables-specifically, natural killer (NK) cells and CD8 T lymphocytes-in women with HIV infection. Ninety-three women (63 HIV-seropositive, 30 HIV-seronegative) were studied as part of an ongoing longitudinal study conducted at two sites. Subjects underwent extensive clinical, psychiatric, and immunological evaluations. CBC counts and flow cytometry panels were conducted and NK cell activity assayed for all subjects; viral load was determined for HIV-seropositive subjects. The overall rate of major depression in the HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women was 15.87% (N=10 of 63) and 10.00% (N=3 of 30), respectively. HIV-seropositive women had higher depressive symptom scores than did the comparison subjects (Hamilton depression scale: mean=8.62 [SD=7.26] versus mean=5.67 [SD=7.33], respectively). Both groups had similar anxiety scores. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with higher activated CD8 T lymphocyte counts and higher viral load levels. Major depression was associated with significantly lower natural killer cell activity, and depressive and anxiety symptom scores showed a similar correlation. Our findings provide the first evidence that depression may alter the function of killer lymphocytes in HIV-infected women and suggest that depression may decrease natural killer cell activity and lead to an increase in activated CD8 T lymphocytes and viral load. The rate of current major depression in these HIV-seropositive women (none of whom had current substance abuse) is approximately twice that reported for HIV-seropositive men. The rate is also consistent with studies of women with other medical illnesses and with a recent epidemiology study that associated depression with mortality in HIV-infected women with chronic depressive symptoms. Depression may have a negative impact on innate immunity. Examination of killer lymphocytes may prove useful in assessing the potential relationship between depression, immunity, and HIV disease progression in women.
    Keywords: Cd8-Positive T-Lymphocytes -- Immunology ; Depressive Disorder -- Immunology ; HIV Infections -- Immunology ; Killer Cells, Natural -- Immunology
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 15357228
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Affective Disorders, 2005, Vol.89(1), pp.217-225
    Description: We assessed reproductive endocrine and metabolic markers in women treated for bipolar disorder over a 2-year time period, controlling for valproate use. Twenty-five women ages 18–45 with bipolar disorder underwent longitudinal evaluations. Subjects completed a reproductive health questionnaire and endocrinological exam at baseline. Total and free testosterone, progesterone, LH, FSH, fasting insulin and glucose, and other hormones were measured across the menstrual cycle at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Ten subjects were currently receiving valproate as a mood stabilizing agent; of the remaining subjects, six received lithium and five received atypical antipsychotics. Of all subjects, 41.7% reported current oligomenorrhea, while 40% reported oligomenorrhea before starting medication. Rates of oligomenorrhea and clinical hyperandrogenism did not differ by medication use. Eighty percent of women had a high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at baseline; all other measures were normal. Over time, all subjects exhibited a significant decrease in luteal phase progesterone and increase in free testosterone concentrations. Valproate use was associated with an increase over time in total testosterone. Baseline values and changes in BMI were similar across groups. Limitations include small sample size and the absence of a control group. We confirm our previous observations of high rates of menstrual abnormalities, hyperandrogenemia and insulin resistance in women with bipolar disorder. These results tentatively support the role of valproate in hyperandrogenemia; however, rates of oligomenorrhea and clinical hyperandrogenism did not differ between medication groups.
    Keywords: Bipolar Disorder ; Women ; Menstrual Abnormalities ; Testosterone ; Insulin Resistance ; Valproate
    ISSN: 0165-0327
    E-ISSN: 1573-2517
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