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  • Zoobenthos
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  • 1
    In: Journal of the North American Benthological Society June 2006, Vol.25(2), pp.313-329
    Description: Abstract Secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment is common in developed countries, but little is known about the responses of lotic ecosystems to contemporary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. We examined the effects of WWTP discharge on various ecosystem components and functions of 2 morphologically and chemically impacted lowland streams near Berlin, Germany. We sampled one reach upstream and one reach downstream of a WWTP in each stream during each of 5 sampling campaigns. Discharge of treated wastewater resulted in increased concentrations of total organic C, total N, and total P in the sediments and in elevated macrophyte and benthic invertebrate biomasses. However, adverse effects of the WWTPs on the benthic invertebrate communities were small compared to effects reported in previous studies. This difference was a result of the higher purification efficiency of modern WWTPs, but also of significant structural degradation and eutrophication of the streams that already had impoverished the invertebrate community upstream of the WWTPs. Whole-stream community respiration (CR 24 ) and gross primary production (GPP) were both enhanced by WWTP discharge. WWTP discharge generally caused diminished NH 4 - and PO 4 -uptake efficiencies, but did not necessarily lead to diminished NO 3 -uptake efficiencies of streams. Increases in areal NO 3 -uptake rates caused by the discharge of a large municipal WWTP were high enough to result in increased load-specific NO 3 -uptake efficiencies. Our study shows that the effects of present-day WWTPs on stream ecosystem functioning clearly differ from the former impacts of poorly treated wastewater. Present-day WWTP discharges mainly cause eutrophication and subsequent side effects and low nutrient-retention efficiencies relative to the high nutrient concentrations and loads of impacted streams. Our results highlight the need for efficient tertiary treatment of wastewater and for the refinement of agricultural practices to reduce diffuse nutrient loadings. We found evidence that even efficiently treated wastewater can have extensive effects on stream ecosystem structure and function. Therefore, adequate dilution rates always should be considered when routing treated wastewater through lotic networks. Our findings on the response of key ecosystem variables to present-day WWTP loading underline the importance of scientifically based stream management.
    Keywords: Zoology;
    ISSN: 08873593
    E-ISSN: 1937237X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2016, Vol.768(1), pp.37-50
    Description: Length–mass relationships are widely used to estimate body mass from body dimensions for freshwater macroinvertebrates. The relationships are influenced by environmental conditions and should be applied within ecosystems and geographic regions similar to those for which they were estimated. However, very few relationships exist for littoral macroinvertebrates, and thus we provide length–mass relationships for macroinvertebrates from lakes of the Central European lowlands. We compared log-linear and nonlinear methods for fitting length–mass relationships and tested the smearing factor for removing bias in mass predictions from log-linear models. We also estimated conversion factors to correct for mass changes during ethanol preservation and assessed the transferability of our results to different geographical regions. We showed that the log-linear approach gave better results in fitting length–mass relationships, while residuals showed that nonlinear models over-predict the mass of small individuals. The smearing correction factor successfully removed bias introduced by log transformation, and relationships transferred well between lakes in the same and different geographical regions. In total, 52 bias-corrected length–mass relationships are provided for littoral macroinvertebrates that are applicable also to lakes in geographic regions with similar environmental conditions, such as the Central European lowlands or the temperate lowland zone of America.
    Keywords: Preservation conversion factor ; Smearing factor ; Length–mass relationships ; Macroinvertebrates ; Additive vs. multiplicative errors ; Log-linear vs. nonlinear regression
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2016, Vol.776(1), pp.51-65
    Description: This study addressed the influence of common shoreline engineering structures (off-bankline revetment, rip rap and wing dike) on richness, biomass and secondary production of native and non-native macroinvertebrates in the navigation channel and near-shore habitats in the Elbe River (Germany). Within the navigation channel, only marginal differences among engineering structures were observed, and non-native species were absent from all samples. At the shoreline, secondary production of non-native species was significantly greater at the rip rap and represented 59% of total secondary production in near-shore habitats. Conversely, secondary production of native species at the shoreline was 9-fold lower at the rip rap and more than twice the rates at the wing dike. Differences in secondary production among engineering structures were attributed to differential distribution of substrate types. Boulder substrates, the dominant substrate type in the rip rap, promoted contributions of non-native species while macrophytes and silt were associated with high contributions of native species at the off-bankline revetment. Our results reveal that the morphological configuration of engineering structures in large rivers not only controls the rate of secondary production for macroinvertebrates but also the contribution of non-native species to total community functioning.
    Keywords: Ecosystem functioning ; Elbe River ; Dikerogammarus villosus ; Neozoa ; Non-native species ; River engineering
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2013, Vol.717(1), pp.147-159
    Description: Reduction of flow constitutes one of the most severe human alterations to rivers, as it affects the key abiotic feature of these ecosystems. While there has been considerable progress in understanding the effects of reduced flow on benthic macroinvertebrates, cascading effects of flow reduction on dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) have not yet received much attention. We compared the macroinvertebrate composition between reference conditions and a situation after several years of discharge reduction in the Spree River (Brandenburg, Germany). Community composition shifted from rheophilic species to species indifferent to flow conditions. Filter feeders were partially replaced by collector/gatherers, which likely reduces the retention of organic matter, and thus the self-purification capacity of the river section. These shifts were associated with low discharge during summer, cascading into daily DO concentration minima of less than 5 mg l −1 which prevailed 74% of the days in summer. This depletion of DO after flow reduction presumably caused the observed species turnover. Hence, flow reduction in lowland rivers may not only directly impair the ecological functions provided by benthic macroinvertebrates but may also act indirectly by depleting DO concentrations.
    Keywords: Low flow ; Dissolved oxygen ; Discharge ; Functional feeding groups ; Flow preferences ; Spree River
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2010, Vol.649(1), pp.365-373
    Description: Littoral macroinvertebrates are increasingly used for assessing the ecological status of lakes according to the EU Water Framework Directive. This requires harmonised sampling methods, but information on the appropriate spatial scale of the sampling as well as on the adequate sample sizes are mostly lacking. In this study, we compared the spatial variability of littoral (〈1.2 m water depth) macroinvertebrate community composition within habitats and within sites to test whether habitat-specific sampling can reduce their spatial variability. Furthermore, we determined the sample size necessary to obtain maximum species richness for a given habitat type. Spatial variability of macroinvertebrate community composition was significantly lower within habitats than within sampling sites, except for communities of coarse woody debris. Species–area curves revealed that a sample size of 1 m 2 per habitat was not sufficient to obtain the maximum species richness due to the dominance of rare species, which suggests that compilation of taxon inventories may require more exhaustive sampling with sampling sizes substantially larger than 1 m 2 . Separate analysis for species assigned to incidence classes showed that a mean area of 0.63 m 2 per habitat is sufficient to record all species with frequent and medium incidences, and 76% of the rare species. We conclude that habitat-specific sampling is an effective way to reduce the inherent spatial variability of littoral macroinvertebrate communities and that a sample size of 0.63 m 2 per habitat is sufficient to represent their dominant and subdominant elements. The application of this adequate sample size to other lake types than large oligotrophic lakes has to be exercised with caution, in particular if community composition and richness patterns differ. However, our results are based on data from lakes that represent the typical lake type found throughout the Central Baltic ecoregion ensuring its wider applicability in this ecoregion.
    Keywords: Coarse woody debris ; Spatial variability ; Species richness ; Species–area curves ; Water Framework Directive
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2016, Vol.767(1), pp.207-220
    Description: Lake shores are characterised by a high natural variability, which is increasingly threatened by a multitude of anthropogenic disturbances including morphological alterations to the littoral zone. The European Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) calls for the assessment of lake ecological status by monitoring biological quality elements including benthic macroinvertebrates. To identify cost- and time-efficient sampling strategies for routine lake monitoring, we sampled littoral invertebrates in 32 lakes located in different geographical regions in Europe. We compared the efficiency of two sampling methodologies, defined as habitat-specific and pooled composite sampling protocols. Benthic samples were collected from unmodified and morphologically altered shorelines. Variability within macroinvertebrate communities did not differ significantly between sampling protocols across alteration types, lake types and geographical regions. Community composition showed no significant differences between field composite samples and artificially generated composite samples, and correlation coefficients between macroinvertebrate metrics calculated with both methods and a predefined morphological stressor index were similar. We conclude that proportional composite sampling represents a time- and cost-efficient method for routine lake monitoring as requested under the EU WFD, and may be applied across various European geographical regions.
    Keywords: Morphological alteration ; Macroinvertebrates ; Lake monitoring ; Method comparison ; Littoral zone ; EU Water Framework Directive
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 7
    In: Freshwater Biology, June 2007, Vol.52(6), pp.1022-1032
    Description: 1. Nutrient inputs from urban and agricultural land use often result in shifts in species composition of pelagic and profundal invertebrate communities. Here, we test if nutrient enrichment affects the composition of eulittoral macroinvertebrate communities, and, if so, if macroinvertebrate communities of five different habitat types reflect differences in trophic state. 2. Macroinvertebrate community composition of 36 lakes was significantly correlated with total phosphorus (TP) concentration, the proportion of coarse woody debris (CWD) and root habitats and the proportion of grassland. 3. However, macroinvertebrate communities of five major habitat types from eight lakes were more dissimilar among habitats than among trophic states. Community composition of reed and stone habitats was significantly correlated with wind exposure but not TP concentration, while macroinvertebrate composition of sand habitats was related to TP concentration and coarse sediments. In CWD and root habitats, both TP concentration and a predominance of invasive species covaried, which made it difficult to relate the observed compositional differences to either trophic state or to the effects of competition between native and invasive species. 4. Trophic state influenced the composition of eulittoral macroinvertebrate communities but to a lesser extent than has been previously reported for profundal habitats. Moreover, the effects of trophic state were nested within habitat type and were partially superseded by biotic interactions and small‐scaled habitat complexity. Although eulittoral macroinvertebrate communities were not strong indicators of the trophic state of lowland lakes, they may be used to assess other anthropogenic impacts on lakeshores.
    Keywords: Eutrophication ; Habitat ; Invasive Species ; Lakeshore ; Land Use
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, December 2007, Vol.44(6), pp.1138-1144
    Description: 1 The shores of many lakes have been substantially altered by human developments such as erosion control structures or recreational beaches. Such alterations are likely to increase in the future, yet almost nothing is known about their impacts on the littoral macroinvertebrate community. 2 Macroinvertebrates were studied in seven German lowland lakes exhibiting natural shorelines (reference), retaining walls, ripraps and recreational beaches to examine impacts on the eulittoral (0–0·2 m water depth) and infralittoral (0·2–1·2 m water depth) communities associated with the three types of shoreline development. 3 Among sites, eulittoral species richness and abundance of Coleoptera, Gastropoda, Trichoptera, shredders and xylophagous species were lowest on beaches and retaining walls but ripraps did not differ significantly from natural shorelines. Retaining walls and ripraps had no significant impact on the infralittoral macroinvertebrate community. Conversely, beaches had significantly lower infralittoral species richness and abundance of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and shredders than natural shorelines. Furthermore, species richness was correlated positively with habitat heterogeneity expressed as number of habitat types. 4 Among lakes, whole‐lake littoral macroinvertebrate density increased with increasing proportion of developed shorelines due to increasing abundances of Chironomidae. The remaining macroinvertebrate major groups decreased with increasing proportion of shoreline development. 5 Synthesis and applications. The biological impacts of shoreline development in lowland lakes depend upon the extent to which structural complexity and heterogeneity of littoral habitats are reduced. Hence, we recommend that management programmes focus upon the conservation of littoral habitat complexity and habitat heterogeneity. The biological effects of shoreline development may be assessed efficiently by combining an assessment of the morphological status of lakeshores and information on macroinvertebrate indicator species with a defined response to the loss of their preferred habitats.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Coarse Woody Debris ; Habitat Complexity ; Lake Management ; Macrophytes ; Recreational Beaches ; Retaining Walls ; Riparian Clearcutting ; Ripraps
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Sciences, 2015, Vol.77(2), pp.307-314
    Description: Stable isotope techniques are widely applied in aquatic food web research to infer trophic position or to estimate the relative contributions of different dietary resources. The accurate consideration of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) discrimination in organisms is a critical prerequisite for such studies. Isotopic discrimination of invertebrates may differ systematically between temperate and tropical freshwater environments, but there are little data available on discrimination factors of tropical invertebrates. Here, we analyzed the C (Δ 13 C) and N discrimination (Δ 15 N) of eight taxa of benthic freshwater invertebrates from a Southeastern Brazilian tropical catchment, six predator and two shredder species. Predators showed a high variability in Δ 13 C (−1.5 to 1.3; min–max), but shredders exhibited a lower variability and had negative Δ 13 C values (−2.1 to −1.8). Values of Δ 15 N were also highly variable among both predators and shredders, but shredders had negative and lower values (−0.9 to −0.1) than predators (0.0 to 9.1). Tissue turnover rates were equal to or higher than 0.02 d −1 for all invertebrates, suggesting that experiment durations of 50 days may be sufficient for future isotopic discrimination experiments with tropical freshwater invertebrates. Our results suggest that Δ 13 C enrichment, and to a minor degree also Δ 15 N enrichment, may not always occur in tropical freshwater invertebrates.
    Keywords: Carbon and nitrogen fractionation ; Stable isotopes ; Riverine food webs
    ISSN: 1015-1621
    E-ISSN: 1420-9055
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), 2016, Vol.19(2), pp.311-325
    Description: Ecosystems are generally linked via fluxes of nutrients and energy across their boundaries. For example, freshwater ecosystems in temperate regions may receive significant inputs of terrestrially derived carbon via autumnal leaf litter. This terrestrial...
    Keywords: Natural Sciences ; Naturvetenskap
    ISSN: 1432-9840
    E-ISSN: 14350629
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