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  • general topics for engineers  (8)
  • computing and processing
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B (Cybernetics), August 2012, Vol.42(4), pp.1169-1186
    Description: Terrain classification over polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has been an active research field where several features and classifiers have been proposed up to date. However, some key questions, e.g., 1) how to select certain features so as to achieve highest discrimination over certain classes?, 2) how to combine them in the most effective way?, 3) which distance metric to apply?, 4) how to find the optimal classifier configuration for the classification problem in hand?, 5) how to scale/adapt the classifier if large number of classes/features are present?, and finally, 6) how to train the classifier efficiently to maximize the classification accuracy?, still remain unanswered. In this paper, we propose a collective network of (evolutionary) binary classifier (CNBC) framework to address all these problems and to achieve high classification performance. The CNBC framework adapts a "Divide and Conquer" type approach by allocating several NBCs to discriminate each class and performs evolutionary search to find the optimal BC in each NBC. In such an (incremental) evolution session, the CNBC body can further dynamically adapt itself with each new incoming class/feature set without a full-scale retraining or reconfiguration. Both visual and numerical performance evaluations of the proposed framework over two benchmark SAR images demonstrate its superiority and a significant performance gap against several major classifiers in this field.
    Keywords: Neurons ; Scattering ; Covariance Matrix ; Training ; Matrix Decomposition ; Indexes ; Measurement ; Evolutionary Classifiers ; Multidimensional Particle Swarm Optimization (MD-Pso) ; Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ; Sciences (General) ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1083-4419
    E-ISSN: 1941-0492
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, December 2016, Vol.27(12), pp.2458-2471
    Description: In training radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs), the locations of Gaussian neurons are commonly determined by clustering. Training inputs can be clustered on a fully unsupervised manner (input clustering), or some supervision can be introduced, for example, by concatenating the input vectors with weighted output vectors (input-output clustering). In this paper, we propose to apply clustering separately for each class (class-specific clustering). The idea has been used in some previous works, but without evaluating the benefits of the approach. We compare the class-specific, input, and input-output clustering approaches in terms of classification performance and computational efficiency when training RBFNNs. To accomplish this objective, we apply three different clustering algorithms and conduct experiments on 25 benchmark data sets. We show that the class-specific approach significantly reduces the overall complexity of the clustering, and our experimental results demonstrate that it can also lead to a significant gain in the classification performance, especially for the networks with a relatively few Gaussian neurons. Among other applied clustering algorithms, we combine, for the first time, a dynamic evolutionary optimization method, multidimensional particle swarm optimization, and the class-specific clustering to optimize the number of cluster centroids and their locations.
    Keywords: Training ; Neurons ; Clustering Algorithms ; Optimization ; Neural Networks ; Heuristic Algorithms ; Particle Swarm Optimization ; Clustering Methods ; Particle Swarm Optimization (Pso) ; Radial Basis Function Networks (Rbfnns) ; Supervised Learning ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 2162-237X
    E-ISSN: 2162-2388
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, 31 May 2019, pp.1-15
    Description: The traditional multilayer perceptron (MLP) using a McCulloch-Pitts neuron model is inherently limited to a set of neuronal activities, i.e., linear weighted sum followed by nonlinear thresholding step. Previously, generalized operational perceptron (GOP) was proposed to extend the conventional perceptron model by defining a diverse set of neuronal activities to imitate a generalized model of biological neurons. Together with GOP, a progressive operational perceptron (POP) algorithm was proposed to optimize a predefined template of multiple homogeneous layers in a layerwise manner. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm to learn a compact, fully heterogeneous multilayer network that allows each individual neuron, regardless of the layer, to have distinct characteristics. Based on the complexity of the problem, the proposed algorithm operates in a progressive manner on a neuronal level, searching for a compact topology, not only in terms of depth but also width, i.e., the number of neurons in each layer. The proposed algorithm is shown to outperform other related learning methods in extensive experiments on several classification problems.
    Keywords: Neurons ; Biological Neural Networks ; Network Topology ; Learning Systems ; Topology ; Computational Modeling ; Nonhomogeneous Media ; Architecture Learning ; Feedforward Network ; Generalized Operational Perceptron (GOP) ; Progressive Learning ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 2162-237X
    E-ISSN: 2162-2388
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, April 2010, Vol.40(2), pp.298-319
    Description: In this paper, we propose two novel techniques, which successfully address several major problems in the field of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and promise a significant breakthrough over complex multimodal optimization problems at high dimensions. The first one, which is the so-called multidimensional (MD) PSO, re-forms the native structure of swarm particles in such a way that they can make interdimensional passes with a dedicated dimensional PSO process. Therefore, in an MD search space, where the optimum dimension is unknown, swarm particles can seek both positional and dimensional optima. This eventually removes the necessity of setting a fixed dimension a priori, which is a common drawback for the family of swarm optimizers. Nevertheless, MD PSO is still susceptible to premature convergences due to lack of divergence. Among many PSO variants in the literature, none yields a robust solution, particularly over multimodal complex problems at high dimensions. To address this problem, we propose the fractional global best formation (FGBF) technique, which basically collects all the best dimensional components and fractionally creates an artificial global best (aGB) particle that has the potential to be a better "guide" than the PSO's native gbest particle. This way, the potential diversity that is present among the dimensions of swarm particles can be efficiently used within the aGB particle. We investigated both individual and mutual applications of the proposed techniques over the following two well-known domains: 1) nonlinear function minimization and 2) data clustering. An extensive set of experiments shows that in both application domains, MD PSO with FGBF exhibits an impressive speed gain and converges to the global optima at the true dimension regardless of the search space dimension, swarm size, and the complexity of the problem.
    Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization ; Multidimensional Systems ; Organisms ; Genetic Programming ; Particle Tracking ; Robustness ; Stochastic Processes ; Multidimensional Signal Processing ; Computer Simulation ; Fractional Global Best Formation (Fgbf) ; Multidimensional (MD) Search ; Particle Swarm Optimization (Pso) ; Sciences (General) ; Engineering;
    ISSN: 10834419
    E-ISSN: 1941-0492
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: 2016 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), December 2016, pp.3769-3774
    Description: In this paper, we propose a graph affinity learning method for a recently proposed graph-based salient object detection method, namely Extended Quantum Cuts (EQCut). We exploit the fact that the output of EQCut is differentiable with respect to graph affinities, in order to optimize linear combination coefficients and parameters of several differentiable affinity functions by applying error backpropagation. We show that the learnt linear combination of affinities improves the performance over the baseline method and achieves comparable (or even better) performance when compared to the state-of-the-art salient object segmentation methods.
    Keywords: Object Detection ; Object Segmentation ; Symmetric Matrices ; Image Segmentation ; Quantum Mechanics ; Graph Theory ; Computer Vision ; Graph Affinity Learning ; Salient Object Segmentation ; Spectral Graph Theory
    ISSN: 10514651
    Source: IEEE Conference Publications
    Source: IEEE Xplore
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: 2016 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), December 2016, pp.3645-3649
    Description: Recently, Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) Search has become a very popular approach for similarity search on large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a novel vector quantization method for ANN, which introduces a joint multi-layer K-Means clustering solution for determination of the codebooks. The performance of the proposed method is improved further by a joint encoding scheme. Experimental results verify the success of the proposed algorithm as it outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
    Keywords: Encoding ; Training ; Hamming Distance ; Optimization ; Vector Quantization ; Search Problems
    ISSN: 10514651
    Source: IEEE Conference Publications
    Source: IEEE Xplore
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: 2016 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), December 2016, pp.2276-2281
    Description: Aquatic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring is an efficient way of assessment of slow and subtle anthropogenic changes and their effect on water quality. It is imperative to have reliable identification and counts of the various taxa occurring in samples as these form the basis for the quality indices used to infer the ecological status of the aquatic ecosystem. In this paper, we try to close the gap between human taxa identification accuracy (typically 90-95% on 30-40 classes of macroinvertebrates) and results of automatic fine-grained classification by introducing a novel technique based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). CNN learns optimal features for macroinvertebrate classification and achieves near human accuracy when tested on 29 macroinvertebrate classes. Moreover, we perform comparative evaluation of the learned features against the hand-crafted features, which have been commonly used in classical approaches, and confirm superiority of the learned deep features over the engineered ones.
    Keywords: Feature Extraction ; Ecosystems ; Water Resources ; Machine Vision ; Microscopy ; Databases
    ISSN: 10514651
    Source: IEEE Conference Publications
    Source: IEEE Xplore
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Access, 2019, Vol.7, pp.67305-67318
    Description: The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in future wireless networks is gaining attention due to their quick deployment without requiring the existing infrastructure. Earlier studies on UAV-aided communication consider generic scenarios, and very few studies exist on the evaluation of UAV-aided communication in practical networks. The existing studies also have several limitations, and hence, an extensive evaluation of the benefits of UAV communication in practical networks is needed. In this paper, we proposed a UAV-aided Wi-Fi Direct network architecture. In the proposed architecture, a UAV equipped with a Wi-Fi Direct group owner (GO) device, the so-called Soft-AP, is deployed in the network to serve a set of Wi-Fi stations. We propose to use a simpler yet efficient algorithm for the optimal placement of the UAV. The proposed algorithm dynamically places the UAV in the network to reduce the distance between the GO and client devices. The expected benefits of the proposed scheme are to maintain the connectivity of client devices to increase the overall network throughput and to improve energy efficiency. As a proof of concept, realistic simulations are performed in the NS-3 network simulator to validate the claimed benefits of the proposed scheme. The simulation results report major improvements of 23% in client association, 54% in network throughput, and 33% in energy consumption using single UAV relative to the case of stationary or randomly moving GO. Further improvements are achieved by increasing the number of UAVs in the network. To the best of our knowledge, no prior work exists on the evaluation of the UAV-aided Wi-Fi Direct networks.
    Keywords: Wireless Fidelity ; Throughput ; Network Architecture ; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ; Communication Networks ; Base Stations ; Spread Spectrum Communication ; Access Point ; Group Owner ; Ns-3 ; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ; Wi-Fi Direct ; Engineering
    E-ISSN: 2169-3536
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