Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    Description: For forty years the Soviet-American nuclear arms race dominated world politics, yet the Soviet nuclear establishment was shrouded in secrecy. Now that the Cold War is over and the Soviet Union has collapsed, it is possible to answer questions that have intrigued policymakers and the public for years. How did the Soviet Union build its atomic and hydrogen bombs? What role did espionage play? How did the American atomic monopoly affect Stalin's foreign policy? What was the relationship between Soviet nuclear scientists and the country's political leaders? This spellbinding book answers these questions by tracing the history of Soviet nuclear policy from developments in physics in the 1920s to the testing of the hydrogen bomb and the emergence of nuclear deterrence in the mid-1950s. In engrossing detail, David Holloway tells how Stalin launched a crash atomic program only after the Americans bombed Hiroshima and showed that the bomb could be built; how the information handed over to the Soviets by Klaus Fuchs helped in the creation of their first bomb; how the scientific intelligentsia, which included such men as Andrei Sakharov, interacted with the police apparatus headed by the suspicious and menacing Lavrentii Beria; what steps Stalin took to counter U.S. atomic diplomacy; how the nuclear project saved Soviet physics and enabled it to survive as an island of intellectual autonomy in a totalitarian society; and what happened when, after Stalin's death, Soviet scientists argued that a nuclear war might extinguish all life on earth. This magisterial history throws light on Soviet policy at the height of the Cold War, illuminates a central but hitherto secret element of the Stalinist system, and puts into perspective the tragic legacy of this program today-environmental damage, a vast network of institutes and factories, and a huge stockpile of unwanted weapons.
    Keywords: Atomic weapons – Government policy – Soviet Union – History ; Nuclear energy – Research – Soviet Union – History ; Science and state – Soviet Union – History ; Soviet Union – Foreign relations ; Political Science History
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 2
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, Chapter Thirteen, p.273
    Description: On December 21, 1949 Stalin celebrated his seventieth birthday. He was now an old and tired man. Those who met him after the war and had not seen him for some years were struck by how much he had aged.¹ His decline grew more pronounced after he turned seventy. “Every year,” Khrushchev recalls in his memoirs, “it became more and more obvious that Stalin was weakening mentally as well as physically. This was especially clear from his eclipses of mind and losses of memory.”² His memory, which had always been formidable, began to falter. His suspicious nature, a central feature
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 3
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, Chapter Fourteen, p.294
    Description: Stalin’s death was to have profound consequences for the Soviet Union and the world, but it was not immediately obvious that those consequences would be beneficial. Some people – even those who knew of at least some of the evil Stalin had done — felt a sense of loss and apprehension: what would happen now? Andrei Sakharov, who was working in Arzamas-16 at the time, wrote to his wife expressing the grief and confusion he felt at Stalin’s death. “Afterwards I felt ashamed of this,” he wrote many years later. “When trying to analyze myself, I think that at the time we
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 4
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, Chapter Fifteen, p.320
    Description: The dominant figures in the post-Stalin leadership were the men who had been closest to Stalin in his final years. Malenkov became chairman of the Council of Ministers. Khrushchev headed the Central Committee Secretariat and became First Secretary in September 1953. Beria was put in charge of the new Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD), which combined the old ministry of that name with the Ministry of State Security (MGB). Bulganin, who had been replaced as Minister of the Armed Forces by Marshal A. M. Vasilevskii in 1949, took over the new Ministry of Defense, to which the Navy was once
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 5
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, p.i
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, Chapter Sixteen, p.346
    Description: This book has already had two endings: the November 1955 superbomb test, which marked a new stage in nuclear weapons development, and the renunciation in February 1956 of the inevitability-of-war thesis, which marked a new stage in thinking about war and peace in the nuclear age. This chapter provides a third ending. Its substantive focus is the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, but it also deals with themes raised in the first chapter and discussed at intervals during the book – technological innovation, the physics community as a sphere of intellectual autonomy in Soviet society, and physicists as a
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, p.vii
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, p.364
    Description: For forty years the Soviet–American nuclear arms race dominated world politics, yet much of the competition was hidden from public view. It was nuclear weapons above all that made the Soviet Union a superpower, but the Soviet nuclear establishment was shrouded in secrecy. In the early years of the Cold War Western governments -and citizens -knew very little about Soviet nuclear policy; the ordinary Soviet citizen knew even less. Only recently has it become possible to write about Soviet nuclear policy as the product of individual decisions taken in particular circumstances. I have tried to provide a coherent – though
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, p.ix
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 10
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    New Haven; London: Yale University Press
    Language: English
    In: Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956, p.372
    ISBN: 9780300060560
    Source: JSTOR Books
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