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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    S.l. : University of Chicago Press
    Language: English
    Description: One of the first maps of Mars, published by an Italian astronomer in 1877, with its pattern of canals, fueled belief in intelligent life forms on the distant red planet—a hope that continued into the 1960s. Although the Martian canals have long since been dismissed as a famous error in the history of science, K. Maria D. Lane argues that there was nothing accidental about these early interpretations. Indeed, she argues, the construction of Mars as an incomprehensibly complex and engineered world both reflected and challenged dominant geopolitical themes during a time of major cultural, intellectual, political, and economic transition in the Western world. Geographies of Mars telescopes in on a critical period in the development of the geographical imagination, when European imperialism was at its zenith and American expansionism had begun in earnest. Astronomers working in the new observatories of the American Southwest or in the remote heights of the South American Andes were inspired, Lane finds, by their own physical surroundings and used representations of the Earth’s arid landscapes to establish credibility for their observations of Mars. With this simple shift to the geographer’s point of view, Lane deftly explains some of the most perplexing stances on Mars taken by familiar protagonists such as Percival Lowell, Alfred Russel Wallace, and Lester Frank Ward. A highly original exploration of geography’s spatial dimensions at the beginning of the twentieth century, Geographies of Mars offers a new view of the mapping of far-off worlds.
    Keywords: Martians
    ISBN: 0226470784
    ISBN: 9780226470788
    ISBN: 9780226470795
    E-ISSN: 97802264
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  • 2
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    University of Chicago Press
    Language: English
    In: Geographies of Mars, Chapter 1
    Description: This chapter discusses the theme of this volume which is about the geography of the planet Mars. This volume focuses on the process through which geographical knowledge about Mars was (and is) produced by individuals, institutions and the public. It explores how the scientific debates over inhabited-Mars theory were enmeshed within a geopolitical context in which Great Britain and the U.S. were key players. This volume argues that the geopolitical moment in which the inhabited-Mars narrative unfolded produced an intellectual and social climate in which the view of Mars as a world inhabited by advanced beings was the only interpretation of Mars observations that was acceptable to Western scientists, writers and audiences.
    Keywords: History Of Science ; Mars ; Geography ; Inhabited-Mars Theory ; Great Britain ; U.S. ; Geopolitics ; Advanced Beings
    ISBN: 9780226470788
    Source: University Press Scholarship Online
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  • 3
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    University of Chicago Press
    Language: English
    In: Geographies of Mars, Chapter 2
    Description: This chapter explores the role of cartographic representation in establishing early views of the Martian landscape as irrigated and inhabited. It identifies a series of transitions in generally accepted cartographic conventions that bracketed the popular Mars sensation and played a central role in the debates over Martian geography. This chapter reviews the conventions and transitions of Mars mapping from 1877 to 1910 and explains how linear details first appeared on astronomers' maps, why they persisted as authoritative representations of the Martian landscape, and the ways in which they induced astronomers to accept the inhabited-Mars hypothesis.
    Keywords: History Of Science ; Martian Landscape ; Cartographic Representation ; Martian Geography ; Mars Mapping ; Inhabited-Mars Hypothesis ; Astronomers
    ISBN: 9780226470788
    Source: University Press Scholarship Online
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  • 4
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    University of Chicago Press
    Language: English
    In: Geographies of Mars, Chapter 3
    Description: This chapter examines the sites or locations where Mars science was produced and legitimized. It explains that the era of the Martian canal sensation coincided with a critical spatial transition in the discipline of astronomy and during this transition high-altitude and mountain sites became a locus of legitimacy in north American and European astronomy. This chapter traces the development of rhetoric and imagery related to high-altitude vision and work in publications about Mars and discusses the ways that astronomers working on Mars topics disrupted their discipline's attempt to set universal legitimacy standards. It also argues that mountain representation played a critical and complex role in the cultivation of legitimacy.
    Keywords: History Of Science ; Mars Science ; Martian Canal ; Astronomy ; High-Altitude Vision ; Legitimacy Standards ; Mountain Representation ; Mars ; Astronomers
    ISBN: 9780226470788
    Source: University Press Scholarship Online
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  • 5
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    University of Chicago Press
    Language: English
    In: Geographies of Mars, Chapter 4
    Description: This chapter examines the representation of the most influential Mars astronomers who were often represented as heroes, travelers, and adventurers. It shows that astronomers' use of a geographical persona to legitimate their claims allowed them to rely on audiences' strong preconceptions about geographical exploration and heroic adventuring. This chapter contends that astronomers' choices about how to represent themselves were very important in convincing professional colleagues and popular audiences that their claims about Martian geography were legitimate.
    Keywords: History Of Science ; Mars Astronomers ; Geographical Persona ; Geographical Exploration ; Heroism ; Adventure ; Martian Geography
    ISBN: 9780226470788
    Source: University Press Scholarship Online
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    University of Chicago Press
    Language: English
    In: Geographies of Mars, Chapter 5
    Description: This chapter examines the cultural and intellectual meanings that Mars science carried at the turn of the century. It discusses the views of British and American intellectuals on Mars science, including Percival Lowell and Alfred Russel Wallace and highlights the reliance on geographical and political theories. This chapter also argues that the most widely remarked themes from the inhabited-Mars hypothesis had strong connections to contemporary debates regarding the control of terrestrial landscapes and peoples.
    Keywords: History Of Science ; Mars Science ; Percival Lowell ; Alfred Russel Wallace ; Geographical Theories ; Political Theories ; Inhabited-Mars Hypothesis ; Terrestrial Landscapes
    ISBN: 9780226470788
    Source: University Press Scholarship Online
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    University of Chicago Press
    Language: English
    In: Geographies of Mars, Chapter 6
    Description: This chapter focuses on the cultural geography of Mars science. It argues that the popular sensation over Martian landscapes and inhabitants constituted a meaningful engagement with imperial and expansionist imaginative geographies. This chapter analyzes the divergent American and British opinion on the inhabited-Mars hypothesis and explores the multiplicity of imaginative geographies that can be read in the phenomenon of turn-of-the-century Mars science.
    Keywords: History Of Science ; Mars Science ; Cultural Geography ; Martian Landscapes ; Imaginative Geographies ; Inhabited-Mars Hypothesis
    ISBN: 9780226470788
    Source: University Press Scholarship Online
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