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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 15 April 2008, Vol.197(8), pp.1103-9
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi contains 3 TonB-dependent receptors: the hemoglobin receptor HgbA, which is required for virulence in humans; the heme receptor TdhA; and an uncharacterized conserved hypothetical protein TdX (HD0646). A double tdX/tdhA mutant (FX527) was constructed on the background of a human-passaged variant of strain 35000 (35000HP). Six volunteers were infected with 35000HP at 3 sites on one arm and with FX527 at 3 sites on the other. The pustule formation rate was 55.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35.7%-75.4%) at 18 parent-strain sites and 44.4% (95% CI, 15.0%-73.9%) at 18 mutant-strain sites (P = .51). Similar amounts of 35000HP and FX527 were recovered from pustules in semiquantitative culture. Thus, TdX and TdhA are not necessary for virulence, whereas HgbA is both necessary and sufficient for virulence in humans. The data suggest that hemoglobin is the sole source of heme/iron used by H. ducreyi in vivo and has implications for the potential of HgbA as a vaccine.
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins -- Biosynthesis ; Bacterial Proteins -- Biosynthesis ; Chancroid -- Microbiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Membrane Proteins -- Biosynthesis
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Advances in Space Research, 2012, Vol.49(1), pp.2-48
    Description: In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a stepwise approach to achieve a new level of space cooperation that can help develop world-wide capabilities in space science and exploration and support a transition that will lead to a global space exploration program. The proposed stepping stones are intended to transcend cross-cultural barriers, leading to the development of technical interfaces and shared legal frameworks and fostering coordination and cooperation on a broad front. Input for this report was drawn from expertise provided by COSPAR Associates within the international community and via the contacts they maintain in various scientific entities. The report provides a summary and synthesis of science roadmaps and recommendations for planetary exploration produced by many national and international working groups, aiming to encourage and exploit synergies among similar programs. While science and technology represent the core and, often, the drivers for space exploration, several other disciplines and their stakeholders (Earth science, space law, and others) should be more robustly interlinked and involved than they have been to date. The report argues that a shared vision is crucial to this linkage, and to providing a direction that enables new countries and stakeholders to join and engage in the overall space exploration effort. Building a basic space technology capacity within a wider range of countries, ensuring new actors in space act responsibly, and increasing public awareness and engagement are concrete steps that can provide a broader interest in space exploration, worldwide, and build a solid basis for program sustainability. By engaging developing countries and emerging space nations in an international space exploration program, it will be possible to create to support program continuity in the development and execution of future global space exploration frameworks. With a focus on stepping stones, COSPAR can support a global space exploration program that stimulates scientists in current and emerging spacefaring nations, and that will invite those in developing countries to participate—pursuing research aimed at answering outstanding questions about the origins and evolution of our solar system and life on Earth (and possibly elsewhere). COSPAR, in cooperation with national and international science foundations and space-related organizations, will advocate this stepping stone approach to enhance future cooperative space exploration efforts.
    Keywords: Space Exploration ; Planetary Protection ; International Cooperation ; Engineering ; Astronomy & Astrophysics ; Physics
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    E-ISSN: 1879-1948
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biogeosciences, August 15, 2018, Vol.15(15), p.4815
    Description: pLong-term environmental research networks are one approach to advancing local, regional, and global environmental science and education. A remarkable number and wide variety of environmental research networks operate around the world today. These are diverse in funding, infrastructure, motivating questions, scientific strengths, and the sciences that birthed and maintain the networks. Some networks have individual sites that were selected because they had produced invaluable long-term data, while other networks have new sites selected to span ecological gradients. However, all long-term environmental networks share two challenges. Networks must keep pace with scientific advances and interact with both the scientific community and society at large. If networks fall short of successfully addressing these challenges, they risk becoming irrelevant. The objective of this paper is to assert that the biogeosciences offer environmental research networks a number of opportunities to expand scientific impact and public engagement. We explore some of these opportunities with four networks: the International Long-Term Ecological Research Network programs (ILTERs), critical zone observatories (CZOs), Earth and ecological observatory networks (EONs), and the FLUXNET program of eddy flux sites. While these networks were founded and expanded by interdisciplinary scientists, the preponderance of expertise and funding has gravitated activities of ILTERs and EONs toward ecology and biology, CZOs toward the Earth sciences and geology, and FLUXNET toward ecophysiology and micrometeorology. Our point is not to homogenize networks, nor to diminish disciplinary science. Rather, we argue that by more fully incorporating the integration of biology and geology in long-term environmental research networks, scientists can better leverage network assets, keep pace with the ever-changing science of the environment, and engage with larger scientific and public audiences.
    Keywords: Environmental Research – Innovations ; Environmental Research – Forecasts and Trends
    ISSN: 1726-4170
    E-ISSN: 17264189
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 2014, Vol. 2(9), pp. 719-729
    Description: BACKGROUND: Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with blood pressure and hypertension risk.METHODS: In this mendelian randomisation study, we generated an allele score (25[OH]D synthesis score) based on variants of genes that affect 25(OH)D synthesis or substrate availability (CYP2R1 and DHCR7), which we used as a proxy for 25(OH)D concentration. We meta-analysed data for up to 108 173 individuals from 35 studies in the D-CarDia collaboration to investigate associations between the allele score and blood pressure measurements. We complemented these analyses with previously published summary statistics from the International Consortium on Blood Pressure (ICBP), the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, and the Global Blood Pressure Genetics (Global BPGen) consortium.FINDINGS: In phenotypic analyses (up to n=49 363), increased 25(OH)D concentration was associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (β per 10% increase, -0·12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0·20 to -0·04; p=0·003) and reduced odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·97-0·99; p=0·0003), but not with decreased diastolic blood pressure (β per 10% increase, -0·02 mm Hg, -0·08 to 0·03; p=0·37). In meta-analyses in which we combined data from D-CarDia and the ICBP (n=146 581, after exclusion of overlapping studies), each 25(OH)D-increasing allele of the synthesis score was associated with a change of -0·10 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (-0·21 to -0·0001; p=0·0498) and a change of -0·08 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (-0·15 to -0·02; p=0·01). When D-CarDia and consortia data for hypertension were meta-analysed together (n=142 255), the synthesis score was associated with a reduced odds of hypertension (OR per allele, 0·98, 0·96-0·99; p=0·001). In instrumental variable analysis, each 10% increase in genetically instrumented 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a change of -0·29 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (-0·52 to -0·07; p=0·01), a change of -0·37 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (-0·73 to 0·003; p=0·052), and an 8·1% decreased odds of hypertension (OR 0·92, 0·87-0·97; p=0·002).INTERPRETATION: Increased plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D might reduce the risk of hypertension. This finding warrants further investigation in an independent, similarly powered study.
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Endocrinology And Diabetes ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Endokrinologi Och Diabetes
    ISSN: 2213-8587
    E-ISSN: 22138595
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  • 5
    In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 2009, Vol. 61(sp2), pp.S395-S616
    Description: We systematically surveyed period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae based on newly obtained data and past publications. In many systems, the evolution of the superhump period is found to be composed of three distinct stages: an early evolutionary stage with a longer superhump period, a middle stage with systematically varying periods, and a final stage with a shorter, stable superhump period. During the middle stage, many systems with superhump periods of less than 0.08 d show positive period derivatives. We present observational characteristics of these stages and give greatly improved statistics. Contrary to an earlier claim, we found no clear evidence for a variation of period derivatives among different superoutbursts of the same object. We present an interpretation that the lengthening of the superhump period is a result of the outward propagation of an eccentricity wave, which is limited by the radius near the tidal truncation. We interpret that late-stage superhumps are rejuvenated excitation of a 3:1 resonance when superhumps in the outer disk are effectively quenched. The general behavior of the period variation, particularly in systems with short orbital periods, appears to follow a scenario proposed in Kato, Maehara, and Monard ( 2008 , PASJ, 60, L23). We also present an observational summary of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. Many of them have shown long-enduring superhumps during a post-superoutburst stage having longer periods than those during the main superoutburst. The period derivatives in WZ Sge-type dwarf novae are found to be strongly correlated with the fractional superhump excess, or consequently with the mass ratio. WZ Sge-type dwarf novae with a long-lasting rebrightening or with multiple rebrightenings tend to have smaller period derivatives, and are excellent candidates for those systems around or after the period minimum of evolution of cataclysmic variables.
    Keywords: Accretion, Accretion Disks ; Stars: Dwarf Novae ; Novae, Cataclysmic Variables
    ISSN: 0004-6264
    E-ISSN: 2053-051X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Astrobiology, 6(5), 735-813. New Rochelle, NY: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc (2006).
    Description: Peer reviewed
    Keywords: Physical, Chemical, Mathematical & Earth Sciences :: Earth Sciences & Physical Geography ; Physique, Chimie, Mathématiques & Sciences De La Terre :: Sciences De La Terre & Géographie Physique ; Physical, Chemical, Mathematical & Earth Sciences :: Multidisciplinary, General & Others ; Physique, Chimie, Mathématiques & Sciences De La Terre :: Multidisciplinaire, Général & Autres
    Source: ORBi (Open Repository and Bibliography), University of Liège
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  • 7
    Description: The detection of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) delay power spectrum using a "foreground avoidance method" highly depends on the instrument chromaticity. The systematic effects induced by the radio-telescope spread the foreground signal in the delay domain, which contaminates the EoR window theoretically observable. Therefore, it is essential to understand and limit these chromatic effects. This paper describes a method to simulate the frequency and time responses of an antenna, by simultaneously taking into account the analogue RF receiver, the transmission cable, and the mutual coupling caused by adjacent antennas. Applied to the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), this study reveals the presence of significant reflections at high delays caused by the 150-m cable which links the antenna to the back-end. Besides, it shows that waves can propagate from one dish to another one through large sections of the array because of mutual coupling. In this more realistic approach, the simulated system time response is attenuated by a factor $10^{4}$ after a characteristic delay which depends on the size of the array and on the antenna position. Ultimately, the system response is attenuated by a factor $10^{5}$ after 1400 ns because of the reflections in the cable, which corresponds to characterizable ${k_\parallel}$-modes above 0.7 $h \rm{Mpc}^{-1}$ at 150 MHz. Thus, this new study shows that the detection of the EoR signal with HERA Phase I will be more challenging than expected. On the other hand, it improves our understanding of the telescope, which is essential to mitigate the instrument chromaticity. Comment: 25 pages, 29 figures - Submitted to MNRAS
    Keywords: Astrophysics - Instrumentation And Methods For Astrophysics
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: McGraw-Hill's AccessEngineering
    Description: Intro -- DEDICATION -- ADVISORY BOARD -- CONTRIBUTORS -- FOREWORD -- PREFACE -- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS -- CONTENTS—SECTIONS -- CONTENTS—CHAPTERS -- SECTION 1 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE -- CHAPTER 1.1 THE PURPOSE AND EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING -- CHAPTER 1.2 THE ROLE AND CAREER...
    Keywords: Industrial Engineering ; Industrial Engineers ; Systems Engineering ; Industrial Productivity ; Reengineering (Management) ; Industrial Management ; Industrial Management ; Teams in the Workplace ; Engineering Ethics ; Labor Costs ; Costs, Industrial ; Cost Control ; Engineering Economy ; Value Analysis (Cost Control) ; Budget ; Profit ; Cost Accounting ; Activity-Based Costing ; Pricing ; Life Cycle Costing ; Methods Engineering ; Offices ; Work Environment ; Manufacturing Industries ; Manufacturing Processes ; Work Design ; Work Measurement ; Labor Productivity ; Labor Laws and Legislation ; Human Engineering ; Industrial Safety ; Industrial Hygiene ; Overuse Injuries ; Human-Machine Systems ; ISO 14000 Series Standards ; Industrial Management ; Musculoskeletal System ; Incentives in Industry ; Job Evaluation ; Pay Equality ; Organizational Effectiveness ; Compensation Management ; Arbitration, Industrial ; Industrial Relations ; Labor Unions ; Industrial Location ; Plant Layout ; Plant Engineering ; Office Layout ; Computer-Aided Design ; Engineering Design ; Manufacturing Cells ; Business Relocation ; Flexible Manufacturing Systems ; System Design ; Production Control ; Production Management ; Just-in-Time Systems ; Business Logistics ; Production Scheduling ; Materials Management ; Materials Handling ; Warehouses ; Physical Distribution of Goods ; Marketing ; Operations Research ; Mathematical Optimization ; Queuing Theory ; Computer Simulation ; Bar Coding ; Automated Data Collection Systems ; Information Networks ; Artificial Intelligence ; Knowledge Management ; New Products ; Design, Industrial ; Concurrent Engineering ; Production Planning ; Total Quality Management ; Quality Control ; ISO 9000 Series Standards ; Process Control ; Manudfacturing Processes ; Machine Design ; Assembly-Line Methods ; Automation ; Packaging Machinery ; Robots, Industrial ; Food Service ; Plant Maintenance ; Industrial Equipment ; Total Productive Maintenance ; Statistics ; Time Study ; Work Sampling ; Cad/Cam Systems ; Project Management ; Group Technology ; Engineering ; Statistics
    ISBN: 0071449272
    ISBN: 9780070411029
    ISBN: 9780071449274
    ISBN: 0070411026
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  • 9
    In: The Houston Chronicle (Houston, TX), Feb 21, 1998, p.33
    ISSN: 1074-7109
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
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