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  • 11
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Language: English
    In: GSM Switching, Services and Protocols, Chapter 5, p.57-93
    Description: chapter 5 describes the air interface in the physical layer. first, it explains the logical channels, namely the traffic channels and the signaling channels (for broadcast of information, random access, etc). this is followed by the definition and realization of the physical gsm channels: modulation, multiple access, duplexing, bursts, and frequency hopping. further topics are: synchronization, mapping of logical channels to physical channels (multiplexing of logical channels into multiframes), and control mechanisms at the air interface (channel measurement, power control, disconnection, and cell selection). these functions are illustrated in a power‐up scenario.
    Keywords: Radio Communication ; Modulation ; Multiaccess Communication ; Duplexing ; Multiplexing ; Bursts ; Frequency Hopping ; Power Control ; Cell Selection
    ISBN: 9780471499039
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 12
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Language: English
    In: GSM Switching, Services and Protocols, Chapter 6, p.95-124
    Description: chapter 6 covers gsm source and channel coding as well as security‐related mechanisms (authentication and ciphering). this includes: source coding and speech processing: speech functions at the transmitter and receiver, voice activity detection, gsm speech coder and decoder, rpe‐ltp, speech quality channel coding: stages of channel coding, block coding, convolutional coding, interleaving mapping onto the burst plane security‐related network functions and encryption: protection of subscriber identity, authentication, generation of security data, encryption
    Keywords: Source Coding ; Speech Processing ; Speech Codecs ; Channel Coding ; Block Coding ; Convolutional Coding ; Interleaving ; Communication System Security ; Identification Of Persons ; Cryptography ; Privacy ; Data Security ; Encryption ; Authentication
    ISBN: 9780471499039
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 13
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Language: English
    In: GSM Switching, Services and Protocols, Chapter 7, p.125-180
    Description: the gsm protocol architecture is explained in detail in chapter 7, covering protocols for transmission user data (speech, transparent data, and non‐transparent data) and for signaling. signaling protocols are explained for all interfaces and layers. in particular, the chapter deals with radio resource management (basic principles, connection setup/release, channel change, handover, activation of ciphering), mobility management (basic principles, common procedures, tmsi allocation, authentication, specific procedures, imsi attach and detach, connection management), and connection management (call control, call setup, dtmf signaling) also covered are physical layer signaling, lapdm (layer 2), message transfer part (mtp), bss application part, bts management, sccp, dtap, bssmap, tcap, and mobile application part (map). furthermore, data transmission over signaling channels (sms), signaling for supplementary services, and signaling at the user interface is explained.
    Keywords: Protocols ; Communication System Signaling ; Resource Management ; Mobility Management ; Location Management ; Call Control ; Connection Management
    ISBN: 9780471499039
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 14
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Language: English
    In: GSM Switching, Services and Protocols, Chapter 8, p.181-207
    Description: chapter 8 describes in detail functions for gsm roaming and switching. it includes: overview of the functions of the mobile application part (map) that are relevant for roaming location registration and update connection establishment and termination: routing of calls to mobile subscribers, outgoing and incoming call setup, paging, call termination, routing of sms messages a detailed explanation of handover functionality (basics, intra‐msc handover; decision algorithm, inter‐msc handover, basic handover, subsequent handover)
    Keywords: Roaming ; Communication Switching ; Routing ; Mobility Management ; Handover ; Communication System Signaling ; Location Update ; Location Registration
    ISBN: 9780471499039
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 15
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Language: English
    In: GSM Switching, Services and Protocols, Chapter 9, p.209-229
    Description: this chapter covers gsm data communication and networking. it includes: overview and the reference configuration for data transmission in gsm principles for service selection at network transitions bit rate adaptation asynchronous data services (transparent and non‐transparent transmission, asynchronous‐synchronous conversion, pad access to public packet‐switched networks) synchronous data services (overview, x.25 access) fax transmission
    Keywords: Data Communication
    ISBN: 9780471499039
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 16
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Language: English
    In: GSM Switching, Services and Protocols, Chapter 12, p.271-296
    Description: this chapter covers latest gsm technologies and services that have been introduced in phase 2+. moreover, an outlook to umts is given. globalization: roaming and multiband systems overview of services in phase 2+ improved codecs for speech services: half‐rate codec, enhanced full‐rate (efr) codec, adaptive multi‐rate (amr) codec speech services for group communication: advanced speech call items (asci), voice broadcast service (vbs), voice group call service (vgcs), emlpp data services and higher data rates: high speed circuit switched data (hscsd), gprs; and enhanced data rates for gsm evolution (edge) supplementary services for speech location services service platforms: camel, sim application toolkit, mexe wireless application protocol (wap): wireless markup language (wml), protocol architecture, system architecture, services and applications beyond gsm: on the road to umts
    Keywords: Speech Codecs ; Channel Coding ; Efr ; Amr ; Group Communication ; Asci ; Hscsd ; Data Communication ; Edge ; Location Services ; Service Platform ; Camel ; Sim Application Toolkit ; Wap ; Umts ; Third Generation Mobile Systems ; Imt‐2000
    ISBN: 9780471499039
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 17
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Language: English
    In: GSM Switching, Services and Protocols, Chapter 11, p.241-269
    Description: this chapter explains in detail the general packet radio service (gprs), which has been introduced in gsm networks in the year 2000. it covers: overview of the gprs system architecture (with sgsn and ggsn) and fundamental functionality, interworking with gsm gprs services and quality of service parameters, simultaneous usage of gprs and gsm session management (gprs attach/detach, pdp context), mobility management, and routing protocol architecture in the transmission and signaling plane, routing, and address allocation and conversion interworking with ip networks air interface: multiple access, radio resource management, logical gprs channels, mapping of logical channels to physical channels channel coding (block coding, convolutional coding, and interleaving) authentication and ciphering
    Keywords: Data Communication ; Packet Switching ; Gprs ; Internet ; System Architecture ; Mobility Management ; Session Management ; Services ; Protocols ; Internetworking ; Channel Coding ; Communication System Security
    ISBN: 9780471499039
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 18
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Language: English
    In: GSM Switching, Services and Protocols, Chapter 10, p.231-240
    Description: chapter 10 deals with some aspects of network operation. it first explains the objectives of gsm network management and describes the telecommunication management network (tmn) in general. afterward, the tmn realization in gsm networks is explained.
    Keywords: Communication System Operations And Management
    ISBN: 9780471499039
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 19
    In: Anesthesiology, 2001, Vol.94(1), pp.38-46
    Description: BACKGROUND: The value of exercise electrocardiography in the prediction of perioperative cardiac risk has yet to be defined. This study was performed to determine the predictive value of exercise electrocardiography as compared with clinical parameters and resting electrocardiography. METHODS: A total of 204 patients at intermediate risk for cardiac complications prospectively underwent exercise electrocardiography before noncardiac surgery. Of these, 185 were included in the final evaluation. All patients underwent follow-up evaluation postoperatively by Holter monitoring for 2 days, daily 12-lead electrocardiogram, and creatine kinase, creatine kinase MB, and troponin-T measurements for 5 days. Cardiac events were defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, minor myocardial cell injury, unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Potential risk factors for an adverse event were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Perioperative cardiac events were observed in 16 patients. There were 6 cases of myocardial infarction and 10 cases of myocardial cell injury. The multivariate correlates of adverse cardiac events were definite coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 8.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–73.1;P = 0.04), major surgery (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.3–16.3;P = 0.02), reduced left ventricular performance (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.8;P = 0.03), and ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV or more in the exercise electrocardiogram (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.5–18.5;P = 0.01). A combination of clinical variables and exercise electrocardiography improved preoperative risk stratification. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study shows that a ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV or more in the exercise electrocardio-gram is an independent predictor of perioperative cardiac complications.
    Keywords: Adult–Etiology ; Aged–Blood ; Aged, 80 and Over–Blood ; Electrocardiography–Blood ; Exercise Test–Blood ; Female–Blood ; Humans–Blood ; Intraoperative Complications–Blood ; Male–Blood ; Middle Aged–Blood ; Myocardial Infarction–Blood ; Predictive Value of Tests–Blood ; Preoperative Care–Blood ; Prospective Studies–Blood ; Risk Assessment–Blood ; Troponin T–Blood ; Abridged ; Troponin T;
    ISSN: 0003-3022
    E-ISSN: 15281175
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