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  • Baveye, Philippe C  (131)
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  • 11
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Practice, 01 September 2014, Vol.16(3), pp.246-248
    Description: There is widespread belief, currently, that financial markets are well equipped, and should be given the responsibility, to deal with environmental management. In this context, the commodification of nature would appear to serve useful purposes. This article argues that, from the viewpoint...
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1466-0466
    E-ISSN: 1466-0474
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  • 12
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 February 2015, Vol.298, pp.24-38
    Description: Since the late 1970s, thousands of scholarly articles, books and reports have dealt with the application of the mathematical theory of geostatistics to characterize the spatial “variability” of soils, and to produce soil property maps. Insensibly, this application of geostatistics appears to have become an end in itself, and the reasons why one should be concerned about the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties are rarely if ever made clear any more. In this context, the purpose of the present critical review article is to return to some of the primal questions that motivated this interest in the topic several decades ago. After a brief review of the background behind the application of geostatistics to soils, a number of situations and modeling efforts are described where, even though soils undoubtedly vary spatially, nothing seems to be gained practically by explicitly accounting for their spatial heterogeneity in order to reach a number of management or research objectives. Contrastedly, whenever the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties in the field might be relevant, it is shown that very different perceptions about it emerge, depending on the type of measurement that is performed. This suggests that the approach one adopts to characterize spatially-varying soil properties should be dictated by whatever goal one pursues. For example, if the objective is to evaluate the “ecosystem services” of soils in a given region and to reach decisions about them, one should probably first consider the (typically large) spatial scale that is most relevant to the decision-making process, then proceed via a top-down approach to characterize the spatial heterogeneity of soil services, if and when appropriate. In other contexts, it is argued that measurements should be patterned after the behavior of plants or microbes present in soils, relative to which, unfortunately, the macroscopic measurements that are now routinely carried out appear largely irrelevant or misleading. The article concludes with a number of potential lessons learned from the analysis of the research on the spatial heterogeneity of soils, which bear relevance to the broader practice of soil science.
    Keywords: Soil Heterogeneity ; Mathematical Modeling ; Microheterogeneity ; Microenvironment ; Plant Roots ; Measuring Devices ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 13
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, March 21, Vol.285, p.137(3)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.11.043 Byline: Philippe C. Baveye, Magdeline Laba Abstract: In recent years, several authors have suggested repeatedly that visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) could be an advantageous alternative to traditional wet-laboratory methods for the measurement of heavy metal concentrations in soils. In this comment, we argue that, on the contrary, VNIRS is of limited practical use in such a context and should not serve as an excuse to get rid of direly needed laboratory facilities. The key reasons are that VNIRS spectra are irremediably insensitive to the presence of heavy metals, that the effect of soil moisture and surface rugosity on VNIR sensing still has to be satisfactorily accounted for, and finally that VNIRS probes an extremely thin layer of soil at the surface, which is generally irrelevant in terms of plant growth. Given these intrinsic limitations, it seems indicated to put the persistent VNIRS myth to rest, and to explore other measurement techniques that may have more potential. Author Affiliation: (a) Soil and Water Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th street, Troy, NY 12180, USA (b) Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA Article History: Received 22 July 2014; Accepted 2 November 2014
    Keywords: Soil Pollution ; Soil Moisture ; Spectroscopy ; Heavy Metals
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 14
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, Feb 24, Vol.298, p.24(15)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.03.018 Byline: Philippe C. Baveye, Magdeline Laba Abstract: * Reviews background of the application of geostatistics to soils. * Soil spatial heterogeneity does not always have to be accounted for explicitly. * Perception of heterogeneity depends closely on measurement carried out. * For cases related to plants and microbes, different measurements are needed. * Lessons from the geostatistical story are applicable to soil science in general. Author Affiliation: (a) Soil and Water Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA (b) SIMBIOS Centre, Abertay University, Kydd Building, 40 Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland, UK (c) Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
    Keywords: Soils ; Geostatistics
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 15
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, December 2016, Vol.103, pp.320-326
    Description: Soil biodiversity has become a major area of research over the last decade, and the literature on the topic has expanded tremendously in recent years, so much so that a huge number of publications now deal with soil biodiversity every year. This article does not attempt the formidable task of drawing a general picture of where the field is at the moment, but it zeroes in instead on two perspectives that seem to have gathered momentum over time and raise concern about future progress. The first perspective involves the implicit assumption that to make sense of either the species-, genetic-, or functional biodiversity of soils, it is not necessary to consider in detail the features of (micro)habitats provided by soils to organisms, and that analysis of the information provided by extracted DNA or RNA suffices. The second perspective is associated with research on the effect of the physical and chemical characteristics of microhabitats on the activity of microorganisms. It basically hypothesizes that all microorganisms behave similarly, and therefore that observations made mostly with bacteria can be extended readily to all organisms, ignoring taxonomic biodiversity. To illustrate both perspectives, we provide a number of illustrative examples from the relevant literature and analyze them briefly. We argue that these two perspectives, if they spread, will hinder progress in our understanding of soil biodiversity at any level, and especially of its impact on soil processes. In order to return to a more fruitful middle ground, where both a variety of organisms and the characteristics of the microhabitats where they reside are carefully considered, several routes can be envisaged, but our experience suggests that an emphasis on genuinely interdisciplinary research is crucial.
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 16
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, December 2017, Vol.555, pp.253-256
    Description: In the last decade, X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become widely used to characterize the geometry and topology of the pore space of soils and natural porous media. Regardless of the resolution of CT images, a fundamental problem associated with their use, for example as a starting point in simulation efforts, is that sub-resolution pores are not detected. Over the last few years, a particular type of modeling method, known as "Grey" or "Partial Bounce Back" Lattice-Boltzmann (LB), has been adopted by increasing numbers of researchers to try to account for sub-resolution pores in the modeling of water and solute transport in natural porous media. In this short paper, we assess the extent to which Grey LB methods indeed offer a workable solution to the problem at hand. We conclude that, in spite of significant computational advances, a major experimental hurdle related to the evaluation of the penetrability of sub-resolution pores, is blocking the way ahead. This hurdle will need to be cleared before Grey LB can become a credible option in the microscale modeling of soils and sediments. A necessarily interdisciplinary effort, involving both modelers and experimentalists, is needed to clear the path forward.
    Keywords: Computer Modeling ; Transport Processes ; Image Resolution ; Measurement ; Interdisciplinary Research ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 17
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(9), p.e0137205
    Description: There is currently a significant need to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes by integrating physical, chemical and biological measurements on soils at microscopic scales to help produce 3D maps of the related properties. Because of technological...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 18
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 July 2018, Vol.630, pp.146-153
    Description: Thallium (Tl) is a toxic trace metal, whose geochemical behavior and biological effects are closely controlled by its chemical speciation in the environment. However, little tends to be known about this speciation of Tl in soil and plant systems that directly affect the safety of food supplies. In this context, the objective of the present study was to elaborate an efficient method to separate and detect Tl(I) and Tl(III) species for soil and plant samples. This method involves the selective adsorption of Tl(I) on microcolumns filled with immobilized oxine, in the presence of DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), followed by DTPA-enhanced ultrasonic and heating-induced extraction, coupled with ICP-MS detection. The method was characterized by a LOD of 0.037 μg/L for Tl(I) and 0.18 μg/L for Tl(III) in 10  mL samples. With this method, a second objective of the research was to assess the speciation of Tl in pot and field soils and in green cabbage crops. Experimental results suggest that DTPA extracted Tl was mainly present as Tl(I) in soils (〉95%). Tl in hyperaccumulator plant green cabbage was also mainly present as Tl(I) (〉90%). With respect to Tl uptake in plants, this study provides direct evidence that green cabbage mainly takes up Tl(I) from soil, and transports it into the aboveground organs. In soils, Tl(III) is reduced to Tl(I) even at the surface where the chemical environment promotes oxidation. This observation is conducive to understanding the mechanisms of Tl isotope fractionation in the soil-plant system. Based on geochemical fraction studies, the reducible fraction was the main source of Tl getting accumulated by plants. These results indicate that the improved analytical method presented in this study offers an economical, simple, fast, and sensitive approach for the separation of Tl species present in soils at trace levels.
    Keywords: Tl Speciation ; Extraction ; Soil ; Green Cabbage ; Geochemical Fraction ; Tl Bioavailability ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 19
    In: Water Resources Research, November 2012, Vol.48(11), pp.n/a-n/a
    Keywords: Unsaturated Soils ; Water Films
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
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  • 20
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2016, Vol.15(3), p.0
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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