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  • 11
    Language: English
    In: Advances in Water Resources, 2010, Vol.33(11), pp.1291-1295
    Description: Interest in groundwater (GW)-surface water (SW) interactions has grown steadily over the last two decades. New regulations such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) now call for a sustainable management of coupled ground- and surface water resources and linked ecosystems. Embracing this mandate requires new interdisciplinary research on GW-SW systems that addresses the linkages between hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecology at nested scales and specifically accounts for small-scale spatial and temporal patterns of GW-SW exchange. Methods to assess these patterns such as the use of natural tracers (e.g. heat) and integrated surface-subsurface numerical models have been refined and enhanced significantly in recent years and have improved our understanding of processes and dynamics. Numerical models are increasingly used to explore hypotheses and to develop new conceptual models of GW-SW interactions. New technologies like distributed temperature sensing (DTS) allow an assessment of process dynamics at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. These developments are reflected in the contributions to this Special Issue on GW-SW interactions. However, challenges remain in transferring process understanding across scales. ►Rapidly growing interest in groundwater-surface water exchange processes. ►Research on groundwater-surface water interactions has become multidisciplinary. ►New focus on linkages between hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecology. ►Development of new methods and models to quantify spatial and temporal patterns. ►Challenges remain in transferring process understanding across scales.
    Keywords: Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions ; River-Aquifer Exchange ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0309-1708
    E-ISSN: 1872-9657
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  • 12
    In: Global Change Biology, September 2017, Vol.23(9), pp.e5-e6
    Description: Increasing concentrations of dissolved iron and DOC are likely linked to decreasing nitrogen depositon.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Deposition ; Carbon Cycle ; Nitrogen Biogeochemistry ; Organic Matter ; Riparian Zone ; Water Quality
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 13
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 12 December 2013, Vol.507, pp.149-162
    Description: The linkage between hydrologic dynamics and the delivery of nitrate and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) to streams was studied in the Haean catchment, a mixed land-use mountainous catchment in South Korea. Three monsoonal precipitation events were analyzed, which varied in total rainfall amount (39–70 mm) and intensities (mean: 1.6–5.6 mm h ), by high-resolution (2–4 h interval) stream water-quality sampling along the topographic elevation gradient of the catchment, from an upland deciduous forest stream, over areas intensively used for agriculture (dryland farming and rice paddies) down to the catchment outlet. The dynamics of river-aquifer exchange were investigated at two piezometer transects at mid and lower elevations. DOC and nitrate sources and their transport pathways to the receiving surface waters differed between the forested and the agricultural stream site. In the forest stream, elevated DOC concentrations (max: 3.5 mgC l ) during precipitation events were due to hydrologic flushing of soluble organic matter in upper soil horizons, with a strong dependency on pre-storm wetness conditions. Nitrate contributions to the forested stream occurred along shallow subsurface transport pathways. At the agricultural sites stream DOC concentrations were considerably higher (max: 23.5 mgC l ) supplied from adjacent rice paddies. The highest in-stream nitrate concentrations (max: 4.1 mgN l ) occurred at river reaches located in the lower agricultural part of the catchment, affected by groundwater inputs. Groundwater nitrate concentrations were high (max: 7.4 mgN l ) owing to chemical fertilizer leaching from dryland fields forced by monsoonal rainfalls. Overall, this study demonstrates that the hydrologic dynamics resulting from the monsoonal climate drive the in-stream DOC dynamics in the forested 1st-order catchment whereas sources and mobilization of DOC in downstream agricultural areas are mainly controlled by the prevailing land-use type and irrigation management. Nitrate dynamics in higher order agricultural streams and their connected aquifers reflect combined effects of land-use type and monsoonal hydrology.
    Keywords: Nitrate ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Monsoonal-Type Climate ; Land-Use Type ; River-Aquifer Exchange Dynamics ; Topography ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 14
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 28 June 2013, Vol.494, pp.72-82
    Description: River discharge is a commonly measured hydrologic variable; however, estimate uncertainty is often higher than acceptable limits. To quantify method limitations and spatiotemporal variability, a multi-year hydrologic flow partitioning investigation was completed under monsoonal conditions in the ungauged complex terrain of the Haean Catchment, South Korea. Our results indicate that sediment transport from a single annual monsoonal event can significantly modify the channel cross-sectional area resulting in inaccurate stage-discharge rating curves. We compare six discharge measurement methods at 13 locations that vary in slope from 1% to 80%, with discharge ranging up to four orders in magnitude, which enabled us to weight the accuracy of each method over a specific range in discharge. The most accurate discharge estimation methods are the weir, the acoustic Doppler current profiler, and the in-stream velocity area method; however, under certain conditions each of these methods is less desirable than other methods. The uncertainty in the three methods is on average 0.4%, 4.7%, and 6.1% of the total discharge, respectively. The accuracy of the discharge estimates has a direct influence on the characterization of basin-wide hydrologic partitioning, which can lead to significant variability in sediment erosion rates and nutrient fate and transport.
    Keywords: Terreco ; Korea ; Discharge ; Baseflow ; Topography ; River ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 15
    In: Water Resources Research, January 2017, Vol.53(1), pp.779-798
    Description: In this study, we investigate the impact of single stream discharge events on water exchange, solute transport, and reactions in the hyporheic zone below a natural in‐stream gravel bar. We set up a reactive transport groundwater model with streamflow scenarios that vary by event duration and peak discharge. A steady ambient groundwater flow field is assumed that results in losing, neutral, or gaining stream conditions depending on the stream stage. Across the streambed dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, and nitrate are transported into the subsurface. Additional nitrate is received from upwelling groundwater. Aerobic respiration and denitrification are simulated for scenarios with different stream solute concentrations. Results show that hyporheic exchange flux, solute transport, and consumption increase during events. However, their intensities depend highly on the interplay between event characteristics and ambient groundwater conditions. During events where reversals in the hydraulic gradient occur stream water and solutes infiltrate deeper into the aquifer where they have more time to react. For those events, the reactive efficiency of the hyporheic zone (solute consumption as fraction of influx) for aerobic respiration and denitrification is up to 2.7 and 10 times higher compared to base flow conditions. The fraction of stream nitrate load consumed in the hyporheic zone increases with stream discharge (up to 150 mg/m/h), but remains below the value under base flow conditions for weak events. Events also increase denitrification of groundwater borne nitrate, but groundwater nitrate flux to the stream decreases by up to 33% due to temporary gradient reversals. Transient reactive transport groundwater model of the hyporheic zone for various single discharge events Aerobic respiration and denitrification occur at different timing and locations in the hyporheic zone Reversal in hydraulic gradient direction (gaining to neutral to losing) significantly increases reactive efficiency
    Keywords: Hyporheic Zone ; Discharge Events ; Transient Groundwater Model ; Reactive Transport ; Denitrification
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
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  • 16
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 03 September 2013, Vol.47(17), pp.9858-65
    Description: One of the key environmental conditions controlling biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments like streambeds is the distribution of dissolved oxygen. We present a novel approach for the in situ measurement of vertical oxygen profiles using a planar luminescence-based optical sensor. The instrument consists of a transparent acrylic tube with the oxygen-sensitive layer mounted on the outside. The luminescence is excited and detected by a moveable piston inside the acrylic tube. Since no moving parts are in contact with the streambed, the disturbance of the subsurface flow field is minimized. The precision of the distributed oxygen sensor (DOS) was assessed by a comparison with spot optodes. Although the precision of the DOS, expressed as standard deviation of calculated oxygen air saturation, is lower (0.2-6.2%) compared to spot optodes (〈0.1-0.6%), variations of the oxygen content along the profile can be resolved. The uncertainty of the calculated oxygen is assessed with a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment. The obtained vertical oxygen profiles of 40 cm in length reveal variations of the oxygen content reaching from 90% to 0% air saturation and are characterized by patches of low oxygen rather than a continuous decrease with depth.
    Keywords: Environmental Monitoring -- Methods ; Oxygen -- Analysis ; Rivers -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 17
    Language: English
    In: Advances in Water Resources, December 2018, Vol.122, pp.60-69
    Description: A systematic understanding of hyporheic flux (HF) and residence times (RT) is important as they are a major control of biogeochemical processing in streambeds. Previous studies addressing the effect of heterogeneity in streambed hydraulic conductivity (K) on HF and RT have come to deviating conclusions depending on the specific study design and the selection of heterogeneity cases being investigated. To more systematically evaluate the effects of conductivity heterogeneity on HF and RT, we simulated hyporheic exchange induced by idealized streambed ripples over a large range of heterogeneities. Conductivity heterogeneity was represented in the simulations in terms of 10,000 different heterogeneity realizations from a geostatistical model based on continuous Gaussian and discrete indicator random fields. We demonstrate that any isotropic homogeneous K-field, as an average of a heterogeneous K-field, can only match RT or HF of the respective heterogeneous K-field, but never both. We found exponential correlations of RT and HF with the variance of heterogeneous conductivity. Based on these correlations, an equivalent anisotropic homogeneous conductivity tensor K can be derived. This equivalent anisotropic K efficiently accounts for the effects of small scale heterogeneity on HF and RT. It can be calculated from the median and variance of the hydraulic conductivity distribution of the targeted heterogeneous sediment, without explicitly characterizing the sediment texture.
    Keywords: Conductivity Heterogeneity ; Hyporheic Exchange ; Residence Time ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0309-1708
    E-ISSN: 1872-9657
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  • 18
    Language: English
    In: Journal of sports science & medicine, December 2017, Vol.16(4), pp.474-479
    Description: Objectives of the study were to compare the effects of a single bout of preventive or regenerative foam rolling (FR) on exercise-induced neuromuscular exhaustion. Single-centre randomised-controlled study was designed. Forty-five healthy adults (22 female; 25±2 yrs) were allocated to three groups: 1) FR of the lower limb muscles prior to induction of fatigue, 2) FR after induction of fatigue, 3) no-treatment control. Neuromuscular exhaustion was provoked using a standardized and validated functional agility short-term fatigue protocol. Main outcome measure was the maximal isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF). Secondary outcomes included pain and reactive strength (RSI). Preventive (-16%) and regenerative FR (-12%) resulted in a decreased loss in MIVF compared to control (-21%; p 0.8, p 〈 0.1). Differences over time (p 〈 0.001) between groups regarding pain and RSI did not turn out to be clinically meaningful. A single bout of foam rolling reduces neuromuscular exhaustion with reference to maximal force production. Regenerative rather than preventive foam rolling seems sufficient to prevent further fatigue.
    Keywords: Rehabilitation ; Manual Medicine ; Neuromuscular Fatigue ; Pain Therapy ; Self-Myofascial Release ; Sports Medicine
    ISSN: 1303-2968
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  • 19
    Language: English
    In: Advances in Water Resources, December 2015, Vol.86, pp.133-146
    Description: Dynamics of solute export from catchments can be classified in terms of chemostatic and chemodynamic export regimes by an analysis of concentration–discharge relationships. Previous studies hypothesized that distinct export regimes emerge from the presence of solute mass stores within the catchment and their connectivity to the stream. However, so far a direct link of solute export to identifiable catchment characteristics is missing. Here we investigate long-term time series of stream water quality and quantity of nine neighboring catchments in Central Germany ranging from relatively pristine mountain catchments to agriculturally dominated lowland catchments, spanning large gradients in land use, geology, and climatic conditions. Given the strong collinearity of catchment characteristics we used partial least square regression analysis to quantify the predictive power of these characteristics for median concentrations and the metrics of export regime. We can show that median concentrations and metrics of the export regimes of major ions and nutrients can indeed be inferred from catchment characteristics. Strongest predictors for median concentrations were the share of arable land, discharge per area, runoff coefficient and available water capacity in the root zone of the catchments. The available water capacity in the root zone, the share of arable land being artificially drained and the topographic gradient were found to be the most relevant predictors for the metrics of export regime. These catchment characteristics can represent the size of solute mass store such as the fraction of arable land being a measure for the store of nitrate. On the other hand, catchment characteristics can be a measure for the connectivity of these solute stores to the stream such as the fraction of tile drained land in the catchments. This study demonstrates the potential of data-driven, top down analyses using simple metrics to classify and better understand dominant controls of solute export from catchments.
    Keywords: Water Quality ; Catchment ; Nutrient Export ; Tile Drain ; Export Regime ; Concentration–Discharge Relationships ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0309-1708
    E-ISSN: 1872-9657
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  • 20
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 10/22/2018, pp.1-36
    ISSN: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
    E-ISSN: 1812-2116
    Source: CrossRef
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