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  • 11
    Language: German
    In: Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung, Vol.85(3), pp. 69-79
    ISSN: 18611559
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 12
    Language: English
    In: Experimental Psychology, 2018, Vol.65(4), pp.201-209
    Description: In the current study, we tested if stimulus-response (SR) compatibility effects of spatially ambiguous words depend on a semantic priming context. Although many words, including spatial words, can take on several meanings, this is an open question. From Experiments 1 to 3, we manipulated the likelihood that the vertical meaning of the German particles auf and ab was processed by (1) instructing the processing of vertical meaning in Experiment 1, but not in Experiments 2 and 3, and (2) by using verbs that either primed (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not prime (Experiments 1–3) the targets’ vertical meanings. Spatial SR compatibility effects resulted, regardless of whether or not the processing of the vertical meaning was instructed and the vertical meaning was primed. Results suggest that the selection between vertically discriminated responses could be sufficient to elicit the participants’ extraction of the vertical meaning of the ambiguous particles.
    Keywords: Spatial Stimulus-Response Compatibility ; Semantic Ambiguity ; Spatial Priming ; German Particles
    ISSN: 1618-3169
    E-ISSN: 2190-5142
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  • 13
    Language: English
    In: Pediatric exercise science, February 2015, Vol.27(1), pp.77-84
    Description: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of active (AR) and passive recovery (PR) after a high-intensive repeated sprint running protocol on physiological parameters in children and adults. Blood lactate (La) and blood pH were obtained during two sets of 5 × 5 s all-out sprints and several times during subsequent 30-min recovery in 16 children and 16 adults. End-exercise La was significantly lower and pH significantly higher in children (La: 5.21 ± 2.73 mmol·L-1; pH: 7.37 ± 0.06) compared with adults (La: 10.35 ± 5.76 mmol·L-1; pH: 7.27 ± 0.10) (p 〈 .01). La half-life during postexercise recovery was significantly shorter in children (AR: 436 ± 371 s, PR: 830 ± 349 s) than in adults (AR: 733 ± 371 s, PR: 1361 ± 372 s), as well as in active compared with passive recovery for both age groups (p 〈 .01). The age x recovery interaction for La half-life only approached statistical significance (p = .06). The results suggest a faster lactate disappearance and an earlier return to resting pH after a repeated sprint running protocol in children compared with adults and a less pronounced advantage of active recovery in children.
    Keywords: Lactic Acid -- Blood ; Running -- Physiology
    ISSN: 08998493
    E-ISSN: 1543-2920
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  • 14
    In: Sozialer Sinn, 2018, Vol.19(1), pp.11-43
    Description: Als Beitrag zu einer interpretativen Ungleichheits- und Armutsforschung thematisiert dieser Aufsatz methodologische und methodische Probleme, die bei der Rekonstruktion von Lebenswelten von Kindern, die von außen betrachtet in ‚prekären Verhältnissen‘ des SGB-II-Bezugs aufwachsen, zu lösen sind. Dabei schlagen wir vor, eine Brücke zwischen Armutsforschung und den New Childhood Studies zu schlagen, um die Agency von Kindern und Jugendlichen im Hinblick auf ihre subjektiven Sicht- und Erlebensweisen deutlicher hervortreten zu lassen. Zudem wird reflektiert, wie spezifische Vorstellungen und Wissensbestände über „Normalität“ in der Erhebungssituation virulent werden, die auch bis in die hermeneutische Auswertung fortwirken können. Die Triangulation verschiedener Datensorten, Verfahren und Perspektiven ermöglichte uns einen reflexiven Umgang mit den jeweiligen Wirklichkeitskonstruktionen, die auch mit Blick auf die Positionalität der Forscher_innen zum Gegenstand gemacht werden.
    Keywords: Kinderarmut ; Interpretative Ungleichheitsforschung ; Neue Kindheitsforschung ; Triangulation ; Reflexivität
    ISSN: 1439-9326
    E-ISSN: 2366-0228
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  • 15
    In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015, Vol.40(6), pp.634-635
    Description: Reply to "Discussion: The kinetics of blood lactate in boys during and following a single and repeated all-out sprints of cycling are different than in men - Do children indeed release and remove lactate faster than adults?"
    Keywords: Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Recreation & Sports;
    ISSN: 1715-5312
    E-ISSN: 1715-5320
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  • 16
    Book
    Book
    Cham: Springer International Publishing
    Language: English
    Description: This book presents recent research addressing the effects of different types of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise. It is also the first book that summarizes the effects of compression clothing on all main motor abilities in the context of various sports, offering a...
    Keywords: Biomedicine ; Human Physiology ; Sport Science ; Physiotherapy ; Sports Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISBN: 9783319394794
    ISBN: 3319394797
    E-ISSN: 97833193
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  • 17
    In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015, Vol.40(6), pp.623-631
    Description: This study characterized the impact of high-intensity interval training on the kinetics of blood lactate and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-one boys (11.4 ± 0.8 years) and 19 men (29.4 ± 5.0 years) performed a set of four 30-s sprints with 2-min of rest and a single 30-s sprint on 2 separate occasions (randomized order) with assessment of performance. Blood lactate was assayed after each sprint and during 30 min of recovery from both tests. The individual time-curves of blood lactate concentration were fitted to the biexponential function as follows: [LA] ( t ) = [ LA] ( 0 ) + A 1 ( 1 − e − γ 1 t ) + A 2 ( 1 − e − γ 2 t ) , where the velocity parameters γ 1 and γ 2 reflect the capacity to release lactate from the previously active muscle into the blood and to subsequently eliminate lactate from the organism, respectively. In both tests, peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in the boys (four 30-s sprints: 12.2 ± 3.6 mmol·L −1 ; single 30-s sprint: 8.7 ± 1.8 mmol·L −1 ) than men (four 30-s sprints: 16.1 ± 3.3 mmol·L −1 ; single 30-s sprint: 11.5 ± 2.1; p 〈 0.001). The boys exhibited faster γ 1 (1.4531 ± 0.65 min; p 〈 0.001) and γ 2 (0.059 ± 0.023 min; p = 0.01) in the single 30-s sprint and faster γ 2 (0.049 ± 0.016 min; p = 0.01) in the four 30-s sprints. The worsening of performance from the first to the last of the four 30-s sprints was less pronounced in boys (9.2% ± 13.9%) than men (19.2% ± 11.5%; p = 0.01). In the present study boys, when compared with men, exhibited lower Peak blood lactate concentration; less pronounced decline in performance during the sprints concomitantly with more rapid release and elimination during the single 30-s sprint; and faster elimination of lactate following the four 30-s sprints.
    Description: Cette étude décrit l’effet d’un entraînement par intervalle d’intensité élevée sur la cinétique du lactate sanguin et la performance chez des garçons et des hommes entraînés. Vingt-et-un garçons (11,4 ± 0,8 ans) et 19 hommes (29,4 ± 5,0 ans) effectuent une série de 4 sprints d’une durée de 30 s avec 2 min de repos et un seul sprint d’une durée de 30 s en deux occasions distinctes (ordre aléatoire) et on évalue la performance. On évalue la concentration sanguine de lactate après chaque sprint et au cours des 30 min de récupération à chaque test. Les courbes individuelles concentration-temps de lactate sanguin sont ajustées à une fonction biexponentielle comme suit : [LA] ( t ) = [ LA] ( 0 ) + A 1 ( 1 − e − γ 1 t ) + A 2 ( 1 − e − γ 2 t ) où les paramètres de la vélocité γ 1 et γ 2 reflètent respectivement la capacité des muscles précédemment actifs à libérer le lactate dans le sang et à l’éliminer de l’organisme par la suite. Dans les deux tests, la concentration sanguine de pointe de lactate est significativement plus faible chez les garçons (4 × 30-s sprint: 12,2 ± 3,6 mmol·L –1 ; 1 sprint de 30 s: 8,7 ± 1,8 mmol·L –1 ) comparativement aux hommes (4 sprints de 30 s: 16,1 ± 3,3 mmol·L –1 ; 1 sprint de 30 s: 11,5 ± 2,1 mmol·L –1 ; p 〈 0,001). Chez les garçons, on observe des valeurs plus élevées de γ 1 (1,4531 ± 0,65 min; p 〈 0,001) et de γ 2 (0,059 ± 0,023 min; p = 0,01) au sprint de 30 s et des valeurs plus élevées de γ 2 (0,049 ± 0,016 min; p = 0,01) aux 4 sprints de 30 s. La diminution de la performance du 1 er au 4 e sprint de 30 s est moins prononcée chez les garçons (9,2 ± 13,9 %) que chez les hommes (19,2 ± 11,5 %; p = 0,01). Comparativement aux hommes, les garçons présentent une plus faible concentration sanguine de pointe de lactate, une diminution moins importante de la performance au sprint concomitamment à une libération et une élimination plus rapide du lactate au cours du sprint isolé de 30 s et une élimination plus rapide de lactate à la suite des 4 sprints de 30 s. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
    Keywords: High Intensive Interval Training ; Children ; Elimination ; Recovery ; Entraînement Par Intervalle D’intensité Élevée ; Enfants ; Élimination ; Récupération
    ISSN: 1715-5312
    E-ISSN: 1715-5320
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  • 18
    Language: English
    In: Pediatric exercise science, November 2014, Vol.26(4), pp.485-94
    Description: This study aimed to determine the effects of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses, and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5 ± 0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7 ± 4.6 years) performed HIIT (4 consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55 ± 3.3 nmol/l to 15.13 ± 9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07 ± 4.7 nmol/l to 19.19 ± 12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p 〈 .01). Pretest SC as well as posttest changes were comparable in both groups (both p 〈 .01). Peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in boys (12.6 ± 3.5 mmol/l) than in men (16.3 ± 3.1 mmol/l; p 〈 .01). Throughout the HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p 〈 .001) but relative peak oxygen uptake (ml·min-1·kg-1; p 〈 .05) and performance were lower (p 〈 .001) in boys than in men. HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.
    Keywords: Bicycling -- Physiology ; Physical Exertion -- Physiology
    ISSN: 08998493
    E-ISSN: 1543-2920
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  • 19
    Language: German
    In: German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 2018, Vol.48(1), pp.120-128
    Description: Hintergrund und Ziel: Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Analyse der Effekte einer 6-wöchigen Ausdauertrainingsintervention (hochintensives Intervalltraining [HIIT] vs. Grundlagenausdauer [GAT]) im Rahmen des Sportunterrichts auf motorische Leistung, subjektives Belastungsempfinden sowie psychische Stimmung von 11-jährigen Schüler/innen. Methoden: In 6 Wochen absolvierten 85 Schüler/innen (Alter: 11,9 ± 0,9 Jahre) 11 Trainingseinheiten HIIT (ca. 20 min, Intervalle von 10 s-4 min mit ca. 90-100 % der durchschnittlichen Laufgeschwindigkeit des 6-min-Laufes [vmittel]) oder GAT (30 min, Intervalle von 6-25 min mit ca. 65-85 % der vmittel). Vor und nach der Intervention wurden Körpergröße und -gewicht sowie die motorische Leistungsfähigkeit (20-m-Sprint, Standweitsprung, seitliches Hin- und Herspringen, Liegestütz, Sit-ups, 6-min-Lauf) ermittelt. Die individuell wahrgenommene Anstrengung während HIIT bzw. GAT wurde nach jedem Training mittels Session-RPE-Skala und die individuelle Stimmung mittels Befindlichkeitsfragebogen ermittelt. Ergebnisse: Die Laufdistanz im 6-min-Lauf (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,473), 20-m-Sprint Zeit (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,226), Standweitsprungweite (p ( 0,05; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,056), Anzahl der Liegestütze (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,523) und Sit-ups in 40 s (p ( 0,001; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,146) verbesserten sich nach HIIT und GAT ohne signifikante Interaktion Zeit x Gruppe (mit Ausnahme der Anzahl der Sit-ups in 40 s [p ( 0,05; part. Eta-Quadrat = 0,048]). RPE (p ( 0,05) war höher und die Stimmung (p ( 0,05) positiver nach HIIT. Schlussfolgerungen: HIIT und GAT verbesserten die motorische Leistung gleichermaßen. Jedoch benötigte das HIIT im Vergleich zum GAT 30 % weniger Zeit. Da die Netto-Zeit im Sportunterricht limitiert ist, bietet HIIT eine neue Perspektive zur Verbesserung der Ausdauer und weiterer motorischer Leistungen von Schüler/innen. Die positive Stimmung nach HIIT unterstreicht die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT im Sportunterricht. (Autor). Background and aim: This study examined the effects of a 6-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. low-intensity endurance training (LOW), applied during physical education on motor performance, mood and perceived exertion. Methods: Over a period of 6 weeks, 85 pupils (34 male; 51 female; age: 11.9 ± 0.9 years) performed 11 sessions of either HIIT (20 min, intervals from 10 s to 4 min at about 90-100% of average running speed of 6 min run [vmean]) or LOW (30 min, intervals from 6-25 min at about 65-85% vmean). Before and after the 6-week intervention each pupils' anthropometry and motor performance (20 m sprint, standing long-jump, lateral jumping from side to side, push-ups, sit-ups, 6 min run) were assessed. Session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after each session and mood was assessed by questionnaire following the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 11th session. Results: RPE (p ( 0.05) was higher and mood more positive (p ( 0.05) with HIIT compared to LOW. Performances in the 6 min run (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.473), 20 m sprint (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.226), standing long-jump (p ( 0.05; part. eta squared = 0.056), push-ups (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.523) and sit-ups (p ( 0.001; part. eta squared = 0.146) improved following HIIT and LOW with no significant time x group interaction (except for the sit-ups [p ( 0.05; part. eta squared = 0.048]). Conclusions: HIIT and LOW improved the performances in 6 min run, 20 m sprint, standing long-jump and push-ups similarly. However, the improvements in HIIT compared to LOW were achieved in 30% less time. As time is limited in physical education classes, HIIT offers a new perspective for improving endurance and motor performance in children. The positive mood associated with HIIT demonstrates the applicability in physical education. (Autor).
    Keywords: Endurance training ; Children ; Anaerobic–lactic endurance training ; Physical education ; Continuous training
    ISSN: 2509-3142
    E-ISSN: 2509-3150
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  • 20
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Physiology, 01 May 2018, Vol.9
    Description: Objectives: To evaluate the immediate responses to forearm compression of blood lactate concentration, heart rate, perceived exertion and local forearm muscle pain during severe climbing in elite climbers.Method: Seven elite climbers (18 ± 2 years; 164 ± 5 cm; 57.8 ± 5.3 kg) performed 3 × 3 climbing bouts with maximal intensity on a distinct 8 m boulder wall (lead grade: 7a–8b) in a single blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, wearing either forearm sleeves with compression (verum-compression) or placebo forearm sleeves with no compression (falsum-compression). Each climber’s heart rate was recorded during and capillary blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and forearm muscle pain were assessed directly after climbing.Result: Heart rate (p = 0.45, ηp2 = 0.12), blood lactate concentrations (p = 0.44, ηp2 = 0.10), perceived exertion levels (p = 0.51, ηp2 = 0.08) and pain perception (p = 0.67, ηp2 = 0.03) were not affected by forearm compression. No condition × time interaction effect (compression × time) occurred for heart rate (p = 0.66, ηp2 = 0.04), blood lactate concentration (p = 0.70, ηp2 = 0.02), perceived exertion (p = 0.20, ηp2 = 0.26) and pain perception (p = 0.62, ηp2 = 0.04).Conclusion: In elite climbers performing severe climbing bouts, sleeves with forearm compression do not alter blood lactate concentration, heart rate, perceived exertion and local forearm muscle pain.
    Keywords: Acute Response ; Climbing ; Compression Garments ; Clothing ; External Pressure
    E-ISSN: 1664-042X
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