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  • 11
    Language: English
    In: Biology letters, January 2018, Vol.14(1)
    Description: Intergeneric hybridization and introgression was reported from one of two populations of the recently discovered kipunji (), a critically endangered African monkey species of southern Tanzania. Kipunjis of the introgressed population (from Mount Rungwe) carry a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype closely related to those of parapatric yellow baboons (), whereas the second kipunji population, in the Udzungwa Mountains, carries the original kipunji mtDNA haplotypes, which diverged from the baboon lineage about 3 million years ago. Interestingly, in our study of yellow baboons in Tanzania, we found that baboons from the southeastern boundary of the Udzungwa Mountains carry mtDNA haplotypes closely related to the original kipunji haplotype, whereas baboons from the northern boundary, as expected, carry mtDNA haplotypes of the northern yellow baboon clade. These findings provide evidence for a case of inverted intergeneric admixture in primates: (i) a baboon mtDNA haplotype introgressed the Mount Rungwe kipunji population by mitochondrial capture and (ii) an Udzungwa Mountains kipunji mtDNA haplotype introgressed a small subpopulation of yellow baboons by either mitochondrial capture or nuclear swamping. The baboon-kipunji example therefore constitutes an interesting system for further studies of the effects of genetic admixture on fitness and speciation.
    Keywords: Divergence-Age ; Hybridization ; Mitochondrial Capture ; Nuclear Swamping ; Primates ; Haplotypes ; Cercopithecinae -- Genetics ; Papio Cynocephalus -- Genetics
    ISSN: 17449561
    E-ISSN: 1744-957X
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 12
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(11), p.e0207767
    Description: Subgroups of patients with severe asthma are insensitive to inhaled corticosteroids and require novel therapies on top of standard medical care. IL-13 is considered one of the key cytokines in the asthma pathogenesis, however, the effect of IL-13 was mostly studied in rodents. This study aimed...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 13
    Description: It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe...
    Keywords: Treponema Pallidum ; Baboons ; Serology ; Microbiology
    ISBN: 〈relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="ISBN" relationType="IsPartOf"/〉
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: DataCite
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  • 14
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Primatology, 2015, Vol.77(5), pp.579-594
    Keywords: Gelada – Research ; Tapeworm Diseases – Risk Factors ; Animal Reproduction – Research ; Mortality – Risk Factors ; Mortality – Ethiopia
    ISSN: 0275-2565
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 15
    Language: English
    In: 2015, Vol.9(3), p.e0003637
    Description: There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium ( Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue ) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti- T . pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T . pallidum -infected olive baboons ( Papio anubis ) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T . pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T . pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. ; The success of any disease eradication campaign depends on considering possible non-human reservoirs of the disease. Although the first report of . infection in baboons was published in the 1970’s and the zoonotic potential was demonstrated by inoculation of a West African simian strain into humans, nonhuman primates have not yet been considered as a possible reservoir for re-emerging yaws in Africa. Simian strains are genetically most closely related to the strains that cause yaws in humans. The identification of baboons as a reservoir for human infection in Africa would be revolutionary and aid important aspects to yaws eradication programs. Reliable serological tests and a useful standardized test algorithm for the screening of wild baboon populations are essential for studying potential transmission events between monkeys and humans.
    Keywords: Research Article
    ISSN: 19352727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 16
    Language: English
    In: Mitochondrial DNA Part B, 02 January 2018, Vol.3(1), pp.177-178
    Description: The olive baboon (Papio anubis) is the most widely distributed baboon species. We report here on the complete mitochondrial genome of an olive baboon from the south-eastern edge of the species' range from Gombe National Park (NP), Tanzania. The genome (GenBank accession number MG787545) has...
    Keywords: Sanger Sequencing ; Cercopithecidae ; Non-Human Primates ; Anatomy & Physiology
    E-ISSN: 2380-2359
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 17
    In: Journal of Medical Primatology, February 2014, Vol.43(1), pp.55-58
    Description: Background The distribution of ciliated cells in the tracheal epithelium of common marmosets was evaluated. Methods Light and scanning electron microscopy of tracheal epithelium was performed. Results Ciliated cells were concentrated in cartilage-free areas and virtually absent in cartilage-supported...
    Keywords: Ciliated Cell ; Common Marmoset ; Scanning Electron Microscopy ; Trachea
    ISSN: 0047-2565
    E-ISSN: 1600-0684
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  • 18
    Language: English
    In: Primate Biology, 2017, Vol.4(1), pp.101-106
    Description: In this paper we report on two encounters between olive baboons (〈i〉Papio anubis〈/i〉) and crowned eagles (〈i〉Stephanoaetus coronatus〈/i〉) at Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. During these encounters olive baboons responded by giving alarm calls and all infants and juveniles rushed down from trees seeking cover under bushes or close proximity to adult conspecifics. In one of the events, alarm calls from banded mongoose (〈i〉Mungos mungo〈/i〉) and rock hyraxes (〈i〉Procavia capensis〈/i〉) most likely triggered alarm calling of vervet monkeys (〈i〉Chlorocebus pygerythrus〈/i〉) which in turn prompted baboons to respond with alarm calls as well. In both observations, adult male baboons took the lead in climbing trees, threatening the eagle (staring, yawning, ground slapping) and chasing it away. The reaction of the baboons suggests that crowned eagles pose a threat at least for juvenile baboons at Lake Manyara National Park.
    Keywords: Zoology;
    ISSN: Primate Biology
    E-ISSN: 2363-4715
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 19
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 19 April 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.6292
    Description: Next-generation sequencing approaches used to characterize microbial communities are subject to technical caveats that can lead to major distortion of acquired data. Determining the optimal sample handling protocol is essential to minimize the bias for different sample types. Using a mock community composed...
    Keywords: Buffers ; Bacteria -- Isolation & Purification ; DNA, Bacterial -- Isolation & Purification
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 20
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(5), p.e0176597
    Description: The cellular serine protease TMPRSS2, a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) family, cleaves and activates the hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses (FLUAV) in cell culture and is essential for spread of diverse FLUAV in...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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