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  • 11
    Language: English
    In: Climatic Change, 2010, Vol.103(3), pp.571-595
    Description: Efforts to predict responses to climate change and to interpret modern or paleoclimate indicators are influenced by several levels of potential amplifiers, which increase or exaggerate climate impacts, and/or filters, which reduce or mute impacts. With respect to geomorphic responses and indicators, climate forcings are partly mediated by ecological, hydrological, and other processes which may amplify or filter impacts on surface processes and landforms. Then, geomorphic responses themselves may be threshold-dominated or dynamically unstable, producing disproportionately large and long-lived responses to climate changes or disturbances. Or, responses may be dynamically stable, whereby resistance or resilience of geomorphic systems minimizes the effects of changes. Thus a given geomorphic response to climate could represent (at least) two levels of amplification and/or filtering. An example is given for three fluvial systems in Kentucky, U.S.A, the Kentucky, Green, and Big South Fork Rivers. Climate impacts in the early Quaternary were amplified by glacially-driven reorganization of the ancestral Ohio River system to the North, and by dynamical instability in the down-cutting response of rivers incising plateau surfaces. Effects of more recent climate changes, however, have been filtered to varying extents. Using alluvial terraces as an example, the study rivers show distinctly different responses to climate forcings. The lower Green River has extensive, well-developed terraces recording several episodes of aggradation and downcutting, while the Big South Fork River has no alluvial terraces. The Kentucky River is intermediate, with limited preservation of relatively recent terraces. The differences can be explained in terms of differences among the rivers in (1) filtering effects of constraints on fluvial responses imposed by strongly incised, steep-walled bedrock controlled valleys; and (2) amplifier effects of periodic damming of lower river reaches by glaciofluvial outwash.
    Keywords: Climate Change -- Research ; Geomorphology -- Research ; Rivers -- Environmental Aspects;
    ISSN: 0165-0009
    E-ISSN: 1573-1480
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  • 12
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2015, Vol.29(7), p.2041(4)
    Description: The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters. Key Words program design, health coaching, first responders
    Keywords: Firefighters – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1064-8011
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 13
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, January 2018, Vol.165, pp.161-182
    Description: Young children have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate physical laws (impossible events) from those that violate mere physical regularities (improbable events). They judge both as “impossible.” Young children also have difficulty in distinguishing events that violate moral laws (immoral events) from events that violate mere social regularities (unconventional events). They judge both as “wrong.” In this set of studies, we explored the possibility that both difficulties arise from a more general deficit in cognition, or the way in which children represent and reason about possibilities. Participants (80 children aged 3–10 years and 101 adults) were shown impossible, improbable, unconventional, and immoral events and were asked to judge whether the events could occur in real life and whether they would be okay to do. Preschool-aged children not only had difficulty distinguishing law-violating events from regularity-violating events but also had difficulty distinguishing the two modal questions themselves, judging physically abnormal events (e.g., floating in the air) as immoral and judging socially abnormal events (e.g., lying to a parent) as impossible. These findings were replicated in a second study where participants (74 children and 78 adults) judged whether the events under consideration would require magic (a specific consequence of impossibility) or would require punishment (a specific consequence of impermissibility). Our findings imply that young children’s modal representations clearly distinguish abnormal events from ordinary events but do not clearly distinguish different types of abnormal events from each other. That is, the distinction between whether an event occur and whether an event occur must be learned.
    Keywords: Moral Judgment ; Possibility Judgment ; Social Reasoning ; Physical Reasoning ; Modality ; Conceptual Development ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-0965
    E-ISSN: 1096-0457
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  • 14
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2011, Vol.23(19), p.194111 (9pp)
    Description: Using fundamental measure density functional theory we investigate paranematicnematic and nematicnematic phase coexistence in binary mixtures of circular platelets with vanishing thicknesses. An external magnetic field induces uniaxial alignment and acts on the platelets with a strength that is taken to scale with the platelet area. At particle diameter ratio = 1.5 the system displays paranematicnematic coexistence. For = 2, demixing into two nematic states with different compositions also occurs, between an upper critical point and a paranematicnematicnematic triple point. Increasing the field strength leads to shrinking of the coexistence regions. At high enough field strength a closed loop of immiscibility is induced and phase coexistence vanishes at a double critical point above which the system is homogeneously nematic. For = 2.5, besides paranematicnematic coexistence, there is nematicnematic coexistence which persists and hence does not end in a critical point. The partial orientational order parameters along the binodals vary strongly with composition and connect smoothly for each species when closed loops of immiscibility are present in the corresponding phase diagram.
    Keywords: Condensed Matter - Soft Condensed Matter;
    ISSN: 0953-8984
    E-ISSN: 1361-648X
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  • 15
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Management, 2011, Vol.92(2), pp.284-289
    Description: Rivers crossing coastal plains are often inefficient conveyors of sediment, so that changes in upstream sediment dynamics are not evident at the river mouth. Extensive accommodation space and low stream power often result in extensive alluvial storage upstream of estuaries and correspondingly low sediment loads at the river mouth. However, gaging stations with sediment records are typically well upstream of the coast, and thus tend to overestimate sediment yields by under-representing the lower coastal plain and because there is often a net loss of sediment in lower coastal plain reaches. Studies of alluvial sediment storage have generally focused on accommodation space, but, using examples from Texas, we show that low transport capacity controlled largely by slope is a crucial factor.
    Keywords: Sediment Flux ; Low Energy Rivers ; Texas ; Dams ; Alluvial Storage ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4797
    E-ISSN: 1095-8630
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  • 16
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, Sept 10, 2013, Vol.265, p.64(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.06.002 Byline: Daehyun Kim, Jonathan D. Phillips Abstract: acents Modes of vegetation dynamics were analyzed in a Danish salt marsh. acents Graph theory was applied to state-and-transition models of succession. acents Observed succession showed strong amplification and synchronization. acents This implies possible abrupt system reorganization. acents The approach helps to identify holistic properties of system dynamics. Author Affiliation: Tobacco Road Research Team, Department of Geography, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0027, United States Article History: Received 22 February 2013; Revised 22 May 2013; Accepted 2 June 2013
    Keywords: Vegetation Dynamics ; Salt Marshes
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 17
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(5), p.e96633
    Description: In Dictyostelium discoideum, the secreted proteins AprA and CfaD function as reporters of cell density and regulate cell number by inhibiting proliferation at high cell densities. AprA also functions to disperse groups of cells at high density by acting as a chemorepellent. However, the signal transduction pathways associated with AprA and CfaD are not clear, and little is known about how AprA affects the cytoskeleton to regulate cell movement. We found that the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family member PakD is required for both the proliferation-inhibiting activity of AprA and CfaD and the chemorepellent activity of AprA. Similar to cells lacking AprA or CfaD, cells lacking PakD proliferate to a higher cell density than wild-type cells. Recombinant AprA and CfaD inhibit the proliferation of wild-type cells but not cells lacking PakD. Like AprA and CfaD, PakD affects proliferation but does not significantly affect growth (the accumulation of mass) on a per-nucleus basis. In contrast to wild-type cells, cells lacking PakD are not repelled from a source of AprA, and colonies of cells lacking PakD expand at a slower rate than wild-type cells, indicating that PakD is required for AprA-mediated chemorepulsion. A PakD-GFP fusion protein localizes to an intracellular punctum that is not the nucleus or centrosome, and PakD-GFP is also occasionally observed at the rear cortex of moving cells. Vegetative cells lacking PakD show excessive actin-based filopodia-like structures, suggesting that PakD affects actin dynamics, consistent with previously characterized roles of PAK proteins in actin regulation. Together, our results implicate PakD in AprA/CfaD signaling and show that a PAK protein is required for proper chemorepulsive cell movement in Dictyostelium.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 18
    In: Neurology, 2014, Vol.82(1), pp.77-79
    Description: Randomization is the standard means for addressing known and unknown confounders within the patient population in clinical trials. Although random assignment to treatment arms on a 1:1 basis has long been the norm, many 2-armed confirmatory trials now use unequal allocation schemes where the number of patients receiving investigational interventions exceeds those in the comparator arm. In what follows, we offer 3 arguments for why investigators, institutional review boards, and data and safety monitoring boards should exercise caution when planning or reviewing 2-armed confirmatory trials involving unequal allocation ratios. We close by laying out some of the conditions where uneven allocation can be justified ethically.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-3878
    E-ISSN: 1526632X
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  • 19
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Geology, 01 January 2013, Vol.121(1), pp.000-000
    Description: Abstract Earth surface systems (ESS) are characterized by various degrees of historical contingency, which complicates efforts to relate observed features and phenomena to environmental controls. This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding and assessing historical contingency in ESS that is based on algebraic graph theory. ESS are conceptualized as consisting of components (e.g., climate, topography, and lithology) observed or inferred at time periods. Each component at each time period represents a node of a network or graph, and interactions among components constitute the links or edges. Four indexes are applied: the S -metric, which indicates the extent to which observations of part of the network (e.g., topographic changes between two time periods) are likely to represent the dynamics of the network as a whole; spectral radius, which measures coherence and potential amplification of changes or disturbances; Laplacian spectral radius, an index of the relationship between network stability and time steps and an indication of path dependence; and algebraic connectivity, which measures the inferential synchronizability. For each of these, an index on a 0–1 scale is developed, which represents high and minimum levels of historical contingency for a given n, q. These are applied to several archetypal graph structures that represent various forms of historical contingency in the geosciences and to two specific case studies involving Quaternary evolution of fluvial systems in Texas and Kentucky.
    Keywords: Geology ; Zoology;
    ISSN: 00221376
    E-ISSN: 15375269
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  • 20
    Language: English
    In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, September 2011, Vol.25(5), pp.768-774
    Description: Field implementation of double‐blind sequential lineups has prompted a question about the impact on eyewitness decisions of an explicit not‐sure response option. In this laboratory study, a video crime was viewed by 378 participants who then attempted to identify the culprit from a six‐person sequential or simultaneous‐format lineup that either included or did not include the culprit. Witnesses were provided either dichotomous forced‐choice (FC) response categories (/) or a not‐sure option as one of three response categories (//). The not‐sure option (NSO) significantly decreased witness choosing compared to the FC condition but only for sequential lineups. Both correct identifications and false alarms decreased. Diagnosticity was greatest for a sequential lineup with a NSO. The results suggest a criterion decision shift for witnesses who view a sequential lineup with a not‐sure response option. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Lineups ; Eyewitnesses ; Identification ; Laboratories ; Attitudes ; Alarms ; Article;
    ISSN: 0888-4080
    E-ISSN: 1099-0720
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