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  • 11
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(8)
    Description: University of Bonn, Institute of Molecular Psychiatry, Bonn, Germany Citation: Schemmer J, Araúzo-Bravo MJ, Haas N, Schäfer S, Weber SN, Becker A, et al. (2013) Correction: Transcription Factor TFAP2C Regulates Major Programs Required for Murine Fetal Germ Cell Maintenance and Haploinsufficiency Predisposes...
    Keywords: Correction
    ISSN: PLoS ONE
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 12
    Language: English
    In: Gerontology, April 2011, Vol.57(3), pp.239-246
    Description: Reaching late adulthood is accompanied by losses in physical and mental resources, but lifestyle choices seem to have a considerable influence on the aging trajectory. This review deals with the interplay between cognitive and motor functioning in old age, focusing on two different lines of research, namely (a) dual-task studies requiring participants to perform a cognitive and a motor task simultaneously, and (b) intervention studies investigating whether increases in physical fitness also lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Dual-task studies indicate that healthy older adults show greater performance reductions in both domains than young adults when performing a cognitive and a motor task simultaneously. In addition, older adults often tend to protect their motor functioning at the expense of the cognitive task when the situation involves a threat to balance. This can be considered an adaptive behavior since fall-related injuries can have severe consequences. Fitness intervention studies which increased the aerobic fitness of previously sedentary older adults have demonstrated impressive performance improvements in the cognitive domain, especially for tasks involving executive control processes. These findings are interesting in light of cognitive intervention studies, which often fail to find significant transfer effects to tasks that have not been trained directly. The authors argue that future research should compare the effects of cognitive and aerobic fitness interventions in older adults, and they present a study design in which cognition and fitness are trained sequentially as well as simultaneously. Finally, methodological issues involved in this type of research and potential applications to applied settings are discussed.
    Keywords: Bridging the Gap Between Clinical and Behavioural Gerontology Part I: Promoting Late-Life ; Cognition ; Motor Functioning ; Exercise ; Intervention ; Dual Tasks ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0304-324X
    E-ISSN: 1423-0003
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  • 13
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in psychology, 2013, Vol.4, pp.316
    Description: Theories of motor-skill acquisition postulate that attentional demands of motor execution decrease with practice. Hence, motor experts should experience less attentional resource conflict when performing a motor task in their domain of expertise concurrently with a demanding cognitive task. We assessed cognitive and motor performance in high-heel experts and novices who were performing a working memory task while walking in gym shoes or high heels on a treadmill. Surprisingly, neither group showed lower working memory performance when walking than when sitting, irrespective of shoe type. However, high-heel experts adapted walking regularity more flexibly to shoe type and cognitive load than novices, by reducing the variability of time spent in the single-support phase of the gait cycle in high heels when cognitively challenged. We conclude that high-heel expertise is associated with more flexible adjustments of movement patterns. Future research should investigate whether a more demanding walking task (e.g., wearing high heels on uneven surfaces and during gait perturbations) results in expertise-related differences in the simultaneous execution of a cognitive task.
    Keywords: Cognition ; Dual-Task ; Expertise ; Gait ; Motor Skills
    ISSN: 1664-1078
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  • 14
    Article
    Article
    Language: German
    In: Heilberufe, 11/2015, Vol.67(11), pp.34-35
    ISSN: 0017-9604
    E-ISSN: 1867-1535
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 15
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 May 2016, Vol.131, pp.155-161
    Description: This study investigates the effects of fitness changes on hippocampal microstructure and hippocampal volume. Fifty-two healthy participants aged 59–74 years with a sedentary lifestyle were randomly assigned to either of two levels of exercise intensity. Training lasted for six months. Physical fitness, hippocampal volumes, and hippocampal microstructure were measured before and after training. Hippocampal microstructure was assessed by mean diffusivity, which inversely reflects tissue density; hence, mean diffusivity is lower for more densely packed tissue. Mean changes in fitness did not differ reliably across intensity levels of training, so data were collapsed across groups. Multivariate modeling of pretest–posttest differences using structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that individual differences in latent change were reliable for all three constructs. More positive changes in fitness were associated with more positive changes in tissue density (i.e., more negative changes in mean diffusivity), and more positive changes in tissue density were associated with more positive changes in volume. We conclude that fitness-related changes in hippocampal volume may be brought about by changes in tissue density. The relative contributions of angiogenesis, gliogenesis, and/or neurogenesis to changes in tissue density remain to be identified.
    Keywords: Aging ; Fitness ; Physical Exercise ; Hippocampal Volume ; Hippocampal Microstructure ; Latent Difference Modeling ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 16
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology, March 2017, Vol.173(3), pp.1750-1762
    Description: Plants modify organ growth and tune morphogenesis in response to various endogenous and environmental cues. At the cellular level, organ growth is often adjusted by alterations in cell growth, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify the DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER (DOF)-type transcription regulator OBF BINDING PROTEIN4 (OBP4) as a repressor of cell growth. Ectopic expression of in Arabidopsis () inhibits cell growth, resulting in severe dwarfism and the repression of genes involved in the regulation of water transport, root hair development, and stress responses. Among the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors known to control root hair growth, OBP4 binds the () promoter to repress its expression. The accumulation of OBP4 proteins is detected in expanding root epidermal cells, and its expression level is increased by the application of abscisic acid (ABA) at concentrations sufficient to inhibit root hair growth. ABA-dependent induction of is associated with the reduced expression of Furthermore, ectopic expression of or loss of function results in ABA-insensitive root hair growth. Taken together, our results suggest that OBP4-mediated transcriptional repression of contributes to the ABA-dependent inhibition of root hair growth in Arabidopsis.
    Keywords: Abscisic Acid -- Pharmacology ; Arabidopsis -- Genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins -- Genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins -- Genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental -- Drug Effects ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant -- Drug Effects ; Plant Roots -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00320889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
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  • 17
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(8)
    Description: Maintenance and maturation of primordial germ cells is controlled by complex genetic and epigenetic cascades, and disturbances in this network lead to either infertility or malignant aberration. Transcription factor TFAP2C has been described to be essential for primordial germ cell maintenance and to be upregulated in several human germ cell cancers. Using global gene expression profiling, we identified genes deregulated upon loss of Tfap2c in embryonic stem cells and primordial germ cell-like cells. We show that loss of Tfap2c affects many aspects of the genetic network regulating germ cell biology, such as downregulation of maturation markers and induction of markers indicative for somatic differentiation, cell cycle, epigenetic remodeling and pluripotency. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated binding of TFAP2C to regulatory regions of deregulated genes ( Sfrp1, Dmrt1 , Nanos3 , c-Kit , Cdk6 , Cdkn1a , Fgf4 , Klf4 , Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l ) suggesting that these genes are direct transcriptional targets of TFAP2C in primordial germ cells. Since Tfap2c deficient primordial germ cell-like cells display cancer related deregulations in epigenetic remodeling, cell cycle and pluripotency control, the Tfap2c -knockout allele was bred onto 129S2/Sv genetic background. There, mice heterozygous for Tfap2c develop with high incidence germ cell cancer resembling human pediatric germ cell tumors. Precursor lesions can be observed as early as E16.5 in developing testes displaying persisting expression of pluripotency markers. We further demonstrate that mice with a heterozygous deletion of the TFAP2C target gene Nanos3 are also prone to develop teratomas. These data highlight TFAP2C as a critical and dose-sensitive regulator of germ cell fate.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 18
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.309-309
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Description: Reaching late adulthood is accompanied by losses in physical and mental resources, but lifestyle choices seem to have a considerable influence on the aging trajectory. This review deals with the interplay of cognitive and motor functioning in old age, focusing on two different lines of research, namely (a) dual-task studies requiring participants to perform a cognitive and a motor task simultaneously, and (b) intervention studies investigating whether increases in physical fitness also lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Dual-task studies indicate that healthy older adults show greater performance reductions in both domains than young adults when performing a cognitive and a motor task simultaneously. In addition, older adults often tend to protect their motor functioning at the expense of the cognitive task when the situation involves a threat to balance. This can be considered an adaptive behavior, since fall-related injuries can have severe consequences. Fitness intervention studies which increased the aerobic fitness of previously sedentary older adults have demonstrated impressive performance improvements in the cognitive domain, especially for tasks involving executive control processes. These findings are interesting in light of cognitive intervention studies, which often fail to find significant transfer effects to tasks that have not been trained directly. The authors argue that future research should compare the effects of cognitive and aerobic fitness interventions in older adults, and they present a study design in which cognition and fitness are trained sequentially as well as simultaneously. Finally, methodological issues involved in this type of research and potential applications for applied settings are discussed.
    Keywords: Institute of Psychology ; Center for Gerontology ; 150 Psychology ; 300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
    Source: University of Zurich
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  • 20
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 15 February 2012, Vol.59(4), pp.3389-3397
    Description: A widespread network involving cortical and subcortical brain structures forms the neural substrate of human spatial navigation. Most studies investigating plasticity of this network have focused on the hippocampus. Here, we investigate age differences in cortical thickness changes evoked by four months of spatial navigation training in 91 men aged 20–30 or 60–70 years. Cortical thickness was automatically measured before, immediately after, and four months after termination of training. Younger as well as older navigators evidenced large improvements in navigation performance that were partly maintained after termination of training. Importantly, training-related cortical thickening in left precuneus and paracentral lobule were observed in young navigators only. Thus, spatial navigation training appears to affect cortical brain structure of young adults, but there is reduced potential for experience-dependent cortical alterations in old age.
    Keywords: Cortical Thickness ; Plasticity ; Spatial Navigation ; Aging ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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