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  • 21
    In: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 2002, Vol.15(1), pp.43-47
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, which facilitates the transmission of HIV infection. This review focuses on recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis of this disease.
    Keywords: Chancroid -- Physiopathology;
    ISSN: 0951-7375
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  • 22
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2003, Vol. 71(12), p.7178
    Description: An intact Haemophilus ducreyi flp operon is essential for microcolony formation in vitro. tadA is the 9th of 15 genes in the operon and has homology to NTPases of type IV secretion systems. Fifteen human volunteers were experimentally infected with both H. ducreyi 35000HP and the tadA mutant, 35000HP.400. Papules developed at similar rates at sites inoculated with the mutant and parent, while pustules formed at 36.4% of parent sites and at 0% of mutant sites (P = 0.001). Compared to 35000HP, 35000HP.400 had only a modest but significant reduction in lesion scores in the temperature-dependent rabbit model of chancroid. These data suggest that proteins secreted by the flp locus are required for full expression of virulence by H. ducreyi in humans but have less of a role in virulence in an animal model of infection.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 23
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2000, Vol. 68(11), p.6441
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi expresses a peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) that exhibits extensive homology to Haemophilus influenzae protein 6. We constructed an isogenic PAL mutant (35000HP-SMS4) by the use of a suicide vector that contains lacZ as a counterselectable marker. H. ducreyi 35000HP-SMS4 and its parent, 35000HP, had similar growth rates in broth and similar lipooligosaccharide profiles. 35000HP-SMS4 formed smaller, more transparent colonies than 35000HP and, unlike its parent, was hypersensitive to antibiotics. Complementation of the mutant in trans restored the parental phenotypes. To test whether expression of PAL is required for virulence, nine human volunteers were experimentally infected. Each subject was inoculated with two doses (41 to 89 CFU) of live 35000HP and one dose of heat-killed bacteria on one arm and with three doses (ranging from 28 to 800 CFU) of live 35000HP-SMS4 on the other arm. Papules developed at similar rates at sites inoculated with the mutant or parent but were significantly smaller at mutant-inoculated sites than at parent-inoculated sites. The pustule formation rate was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.5 to 90.3%) at 18 parent sites and 11% (95% CI, 2.4 to 29.2%) at 27 mutant sites (P 〈 0.0001). The rates of recovery of H. ducreyi from surface cultures were 8% (n = 130; 95% CI, 4.3 to 14.6%) for parent-inoculated sites and 0% (n = 120; 95% CI, 0.0 to 2.5%) for mutant-inoculated sites (P 〈 0.001). H. ducreyi was recovered from six of seven biopsied parent-inoculated sites and from one of three biopsied mutant-inoculated sites. Confocal microscopy confirmed that the bacteria present in a mutant inoculation site pustule lacked a PAL-specific epitope. Although biosafety regulations precluded our testing the complemented mutant in humans, these results suggest that expression of PAL facilitates the ability of H. ducreyi to progress to the pustular stage of disease.
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins ; Proteoglycans ; Haemophilus Infections -- Etiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Lipoproteins -- Metabolism ; Peptidoglycan -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 24
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 March 2000, Vol.181(3), pp.1049-1054
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi expresses a conserved hemoglobin-binding outer-membrane protein (HgbA). To test the role of HgbA in pathogenesis, we infected 9 adults with isolate 35000 and its isogenic hgbA-inactivated mutant (FX504) on their upper arms in a double-blinded, escalating dose-response study. Papules developed at similar rates at sites inoculated with the mutant or parent. The pustule-formation rate was 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.8%-78.5%) at parent sites and 0 (95% CI, 0-10.5%) at mutant sites (P 〈 .0001). The recovery rate of H. ducreyi from surface cultures was 16% (n = 142) from parent sites and 0 (n = 213) from mutant sites (P 〈 .0001). H. ducreyi was recovered at biopsy from 6 of 7 parent sites and from 0 of 3 mutant sites. The results indicate that hemoglobin may be a critical source of heme or iron for the establishment of H. ducreyi infection in humans.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical diagnosis -- Diagnostic methods -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Pharmacology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Health and wellness -- Public health -- Haemophilus ducreyi
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 25
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2006, Vol. 74(5), p.2651
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid, has been shown to associate with dermal collagen fibers within infected skin lesions. Here we describe NcaA, a previously uncharacterized outer membrane protein that is important for H. ducreyi collagen binding and host colonization. An H. ducreyi strain lacking the ncaA gene was impaired in adherence to type I collagen but not fibronectin (plasma or cellular form) or heparin. The mutation had no effect on serum resistance or binding to HaCaT keratinocytes or human foreskin fibroblasts in vitro. Escherichia coli expressing H. ducreyi NcaA bound to type I collagen, demonstrating that NcaA is sufficient to confer collagen attachment. The importance of NcaA in H. ducreyi pathogenesis was assessed using both swine and human experimental models of chancroid. In the swine model, 20% of lesions from sites inoculated with the ncaA mutant were culture positive for H. ducreyi 7 days after inoculation, compared to 73% of wild-type-inoculated sites. The average number of CFU recovered from mutant-inoculated lesions was also significantly reduced compared to that recovered from wild-type-inoculated sites at both 2 and 7 days after inoculation. In the human challenge model, 8 of 30 sites inoculated with wild-type H. ducreyi progressed to the pustular stage, compared to 0 of 30 sites inoculated with the ncaA mutant. Together these results demonstrate that the collagen binding protein NcaA is required for H. ducreyi infection.
    Keywords: Fibers ; Outer Membrane Proteins ; Skin Diseases ; Ulcers ; Fibronectin ; Colony-Forming Cells ; Chancroid ; Keratinocytes ; Heparin ; Collagen (Type I) ; Fibroblasts ; Escherichia Coli ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Sexually-Transmitted Diseases ; Bacteria ; Ncaa Protein;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 26
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(6), p.4180
    Description: The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Haemophilus ducreyi contains a major glycoform that is immunochemically identical to paragloboside, a glycosphingolipid precursor of major human blood group antigens. We recently identified the gene responsible for the glucosyltransferase activity and constructed an isogenic mutant (35000glu-) deficient in this activity. 35000glu- makes an LOS that consists only of the heptose trisaccharide core and 2-keto-deoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO). For this study, the mutant was reconstructed in the 35000HP (human passaged [HP]) background. Five human subjects were inoculated with 35000HP and 35000HPglu- in a dose-response trial. The pustule formation rates were 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 72.6%) at 10 sites for 35000HP and 46.7% (95% CI, 24.8 to 69.9%) at 15 sites for 35000HPglu-. The histopathology and recovery rates of H. ducreyi from surface cultures and biopsies obtained from mutant and parent sites were similar. These results indicate that the expression of glycoforms with sugar moieties extending beyond the heptose trisaccharide core is not required for pustule formation by H. ducreyi in humans.
    Keywords: Mutation ; Chancroid -- Physiopathology ; Glucosyltransferases -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 27
    Language: English
    In: Microbial Pathogenesis, 2006, Vol.40(3), pp.110-115
    Description: express two porin proteins, termed OmpP2A and OmpP2B. To test whether expression of OmpP2A and OmpP2B was necessary for virulence in humans, eight volunteers were experimentally infected with the parent (35000HP) in one arm and a double OmpP2A OmpP2B mutant (35000HP::P2AB) in the other arm. The pustule formation rates were 58.3% (95% CI, 33.2–83.5%) for the parent and 41.7% (95% CI, 19.3–64.0%) for the mutant ( =0.25). Biopsy of 35000HP and 35000HP::P2AB-infected sites yielded similar amounts of bacteria in quantitative culture. These results indicate that expression of OmpP2A and OmpP2B is not necessary to initiate disease or to progress to pustule formation in humans.
    Keywords: Pustule Formation ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Porin Proteins ; Uirulence ; Human Challenge Model ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0882-4010
    E-ISSN: 1096-1208
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  • 28
    In: Infection and Immunity, 1999, Vol. 67(12), p.6335
    Description: The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, chemically and immunologically resembles human glycosphingolipid antigens. To test whether LOS that contains paragloboside-like structures was required for pustule formation, an isogenic mutant (35000HP-RSM2) was constructed in losB, which encodes D-glycero-D-manno-heptosyltransferase. 35000HP-RSM2 produces a truncated LOS whose major glycoform terminates in a single glucose attached to a heptose trisaccharide core and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid. Five human subjects were inoculated with 35000HP and 35000HP-RSM2 in a dose-response trial. For estimated delivered doses (EDDs) of greater than or equal to 25 CFU, the pustule formation rates were 80% for 35000HP and 58% for 35000HP-RSM2. Preliminary data indicated that a previously described Tn916 losB mutant made a minor glycoform that does not require DD-heptose to form the terminal N-acetyllactosamine. If 35000HP-RSM2 made this glycoform, then 35000HP-RSM2 could theoretically make a sialylated glycoform. To test whether sialylated LOS was required for pustule formation, a second trial comparing an isogenic sialyltransferase mutant (35000HP-RSM203) to 35000HP was performed in five additional subjects. For EDDs of greater than or equal to 25 CFU, the pustule formation rates were 30% for both 35000HP and 35000HP-RSM203. The histopathology and recovery rates of H. ducreyi from surface cultures and biopsies obtained from mutant and parent sites in both trials were similar. These results indicate that neither the expression of a major glycoform resembling paragloboside nor sialylated LOS is required for pustule formation by H. ducreyi in humans.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Mutants ; Empyema ; Antigens ; Genetic Analysis ; Chancroid ; Lipopolysaccharide Composition ; Carbohydrates;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 29
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1 March 2000, Vol.181(3), pp.1176-1179
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi expresses fine tangled pili, which are composed predominantly of a major subunit (FtpA). Confocal microscopy showed that an FtpA-specific monoclonal antibody bound to bacteria in biopsy samples obtained from infected human volunteers. To test the role of pili in pathogenesis, an isogenic mutant (35000HP-SMS1) was constructed by insertionally inactivating ftpA 35000HP-SMS1 did not express FtpA and was nonpiliated but was otherwise identical to its parent, 35000HP. Seven healthy adults were challenged on the upper arm with the isogenic isolates in a double-blinded, escalating dose-response study. Sites inoculated with the mutant produced papules and pustules at rates similar to the rates observed at sites inoculated with the parent. The recovery rate of H. ducreyi from cultures and the histopathology of biopsy samples obtained from pustules inoculated with 35000HP or 35000HP-SMS1 were similar. Although pili are expressed in vivo, FtpA is not required for pustule formation in the human challenge model.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Haemophilus ducreyi ; Health sciences -- Medical diagnosis -- Diagnostic methods -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Applied sciences -- Laboratory techniques -- Microscopy -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Polyclonal antibodies
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 30
    Description: Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted genital ulcerative disease that facilitates the transmission of HIV-1. H. ducreyi also causes non-sexually transmitted cutaneous ulcers in children in tropical regions. During human infection, H. ducreyi is subject to a variety of stresses. The stringent response is a bacterial stress response system induced by nutrient limiting conditions and mediated by guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp] and the transcriptional regulator DksA. (p)ppGpp and DksA jointly interact with RNA polymerase to regulate genes critical for bacterial survival. We hypothesized that the stringent response is required for H. ducreyi virulence in humans. A ΔrelAΔspoT mutant, which is unable to synthesize (p)ppGpp, was partially attenuated for abscess formation in human volunteers. Loss of (p)ppGpp increased bacterial resistance to phagocytosis and stationary phase survival; however, the mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress. A ΔdksA mutant was also partially attenuated in humans. The ΔdksA mutant behaved like the (p)ppGpp mutant in stationary phase survival and sensitivity to oxidative stress, but exhibited decreased resistance to phagocytosis. Both mutants had decreased adherence to fibroblasts, but the mechanisms underlying the adherence defect were distinct. To better understand the roles of (p)ppGpp and DksA in regulating gene expression, we performed transcriptome analysis of the parent and mutant strains. (p)ppGpp and DksA deficiency resulted in dysregulation of multiple genes including several known virulence determinants. At stationary phase, (p)ppGpp and DksA targets were not identical but significantly overlapped; as the mutants were phenotypically distinct, this finding underscores both the unique and joint roles DksA and (p)ppGpp play in regulation of H. ducreyi virulence. We conclude that (p)ppGpp and DksA play significant roles in H. ducreyi pathogenesis. This is the first study to show that the stringent response has a direct role in the ability of a bacterial pathogen to cause disease in humans.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Humans ; Pathogenesis ; Stringent Response ; Virulence ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Chancroid -- Etiology ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; Haemophilus Infections ; Rna Polymerases ; Transcription ; Mutation -- Genetics
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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