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  • Kreuter, J
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(12), p.e14213
    Description: Due to the use of organophosphates (OP) as pesticides and the availability of OP-type nerve agents, an effective medical treatment for OP poisonings is still a challenging problem. The acute toxicity of an OP poisoning is mainly due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS). This results in an increase in the synaptic concentration of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disorder of numerous body functions up to death. The standard treatment of OP poisoning includes a combination of a muscarinic antagonist and an AChE reactivator (oxime). However, these oximes can not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) sufficiently. Therefore, new strategies are needed to transport oximes over the BBB. ; In this study, we combined different oximes (obidoxime dichloride and two different HI 6 salts, HI 6 dichloride monohydrate and HI 6 dimethanesulfonate) with human serum albumin nanoparticles and could show an oxime transport over an BBB model. In general, the nanoparticulate transported oximes achieved a better reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE than free oximes. ; With these nanoparticles, for the first time, a tool exists that could enable a transport of oximes over the BBB. This is very important for survival after severe OP intoxication. Therefore, these nanoparticulate formulations are promising formulations for the treatment of the peripheral and the CNS after OP poisoning.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biotechnology ; Neurological Disorders ; Pharmacology -- Drug Development
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(3), p.e32568
    Description: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents an insurmountable obstacle for most drugs thus obstructing an effective treatment of many brain diseases. One solution for overcoming this barrier is a transport by binding of these drugs to surface-modified nanoparticles. Especially apolipoprotein E (ApoE) appears to play a major role in the nanoparticle-mediated drug transport across the BBB. However, at present the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. ; In this study, the uptake of the ApoE-modified nanoparticles into the brain capillary endothelial cells was investigated to differentiate between active and passive uptake mechanism by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, different co-incubation experiments were performed with competing ligands of the respective receptor. ; This study confirms an active endocytotic uptake mechanism and shows the involvement of low density lipoprotein receptor family members, notably the low density lipoprotein receptor related protein, on the uptake of the ApoE-modified nanoparticles into the brain capillary endothelial cells. This knowledge of the uptake mechanism of ApoE-modified nanoparticles enables future developments to rationally create very specific and effective carriers to overcome the blood-brain barrier.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Materials Science ; Medicine ; Biotechnology ; Pharmacology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Controlled Release, 2007, Vol.118(1), pp.54-58
    Description: Apolipoprotein E3, A-I as well as B-100 were covalently attached to human serum albumin nanoparticles via the NHS-PEG-Mal 3400 linker. Loperamide as a model drug was bound to these nanoparticles, and the antinociceptive reaction of these preparations was recorded after intravenous injection in mice by the tail-flick test. After 15 min, all three nanoparticle preparations with the coupled apolipoproteins E3, A-I, and B-100 yielded considerable antinociceptive effects, which lasted over 1 h. The maximally possible effects [MPE] of these preparations amounted to 95%, 65%, and 50%, respectively, and were statistically different from the controls ( 〈 0.02), whereas the loperamide solution achieved no effect. This result demonstrates that more than one mechanism is involved in the interaction of nanoparticles with the brain endothelial cells and the resulting delivery of drugs to the central nervous system.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Apolipoprotein A-I ; Apolipoprotein B-100 ; Apolipoprotein E3 ; Human Serum Albumin (HSA) ; Brain Uptake ; Drug Targeting ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0168-3659
    E-ISSN: 1873-4995
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Controlled Release, 2005, Vol.103(1), pp.99-111
    Description: Oligodesoxynucleotides (ODNs) or the corresponding phosphorothioates (PTOs) spontaneously form spherical nanoparticles (“proticles”) with protamine in aqueous solutions. The proticles can cross cellular membranes and release the ODNs within the cells. Thus, they represent a potential drug delivery system. The major disadvantages of this system are a lack of stability in salt solutions and its inability to also release PTOs. The present study shows, using PTOs and protamine free base, that these shortcomings can be eliminated by the addition of human serum albumin (HSA) as a third component to the starting mixture. The “ternary” proticles thus obtained contain maximally a few percent of the HSA that was originally present. Nevertheless, they differ from the previously studied “binary” proticles: (1) They are stable in salt solutions for at least several hours. (2) They show a high cellular uptake into murine fibroblasts, and they readily release the PTOs after uptake. The ternary proticles therefore represent a considerable improvement over binary proticles for use as drug delivery systems.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Phosphorothioates ; Protamine ; Human Serum Albumin (HSA) ; Cellular Release ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0168-3659
    E-ISSN: 1873-4995
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Controlled Release, 2005, Vol.106(1), pp.181-187
    Description: Nanoparticles prepared by self-assembly from oligonucleotides (ONs), protamine free base, and human serum albumin (“ternary proticles”) are spheres of diameters around 200 nm. Substitution of the protamine free base by protamine sulfate leads to proticles of only around 40 nm in diameter with otherwise unchanged properties. The availability of drug delivery systems of very similar composition but grossly different size may be advantageous when dealing with cells which show size-dependent particle uptake. These nanoparticles are promising candidates for ON delivery to cells because of the following reasons: (1) They are stable for several hours in solutions of up to physiological ionic strength; (2) they are efficiently taken up by cells; (3) after cellular uptake, they easily release the ONs even when these are present as phosphorothioates.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Phosphorothioates ; Protamine Sulfate ; Human Serum Albumin ; Cellular Release ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0168-3659
    E-ISSN: 1873-4995
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2004, Vol.57(2), pp.369-375
    Description: Nanoparticles represent promising carriers for controlled drug delivery. This work focuses on the size and molecular mass characterization of polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles formed by anionic emulsion polymerization of butylcyanoacrylate in the presence of poloxamer 188 as a stabilizer. Three different methods were used to determine the size and size distribution of the particle populations: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and analytical ultracentrifugation (ANUC). SEM on freeze-dried and Au-shadowed samples showed a relatively narrow distribution of virtually spherical particles with a mean diameter of 167 nm. DLS yielded a monomodal distribution with hydrodynamic diameters around 199 nm (in the absence of additional stabilizer) or 184 nm (in the presence of 1% poloxamer 188). The size distribution determined by ANUC using sedimentation velocity analysis was somewhat more complex, the size of the most abundant particles being around 184 nm. Molar particle mass distributions centered around 2.3x10(9) g/mol. The advantages and disadvantages of the three sizing techniques are discussed.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Polyalkylcyanoacrylate ; Particle Size ; Molecular Weight ; Analytical Ultracentrifugation ; Dynamic Light Scattering ; Electron Microscopy ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0939-6411
    E-ISSN: 1873-3441
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, August 2009, Vol.9(8), pp.5091-8
    Description: Hydrophobic drugs, loperamide and paclitaxel, were loaded in poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles by polymerization of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in aqueous-organic media in the presence of a drug. The particles were stabilized by dextran 70,000 and poloxamer 188 or by 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-5000] sodium salt. It was shown that in the presence of dichloromethane, methanol or ethanol the encapsulation efficiency of loperamide in the nanoparticles reached 80%. Loading of paclitaxel was efficient only in the presence of the lipid. The organic solvents did not significantly influence the nanoparticle morphology or their physicochemical parameters. Thus produced poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles enabled delivery of loperamide across the blood-brain barrier, which was evidenced by the drug analgesic effect evaluated by the tail-flick test.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Enbucrilate -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 1533-4880
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Arzneimittel-Forschung, 2002, Vol.52(5), pp.393-9
    Description: Twenty derivatives of aphidicolin were tested against HSV (herpes simplex virus), HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) and adenovirus in vitro. In addition, the antiviral activity of aphidicolin (CAS 38966-21-1) in combination with aciclovir (CAS 59277-89-3) or cidofovir (CAS 113852-37-2) against HSV was determined. The antiviral effects were evaluated using plaque reduction assay in Vero cells or human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF) for HSV and HCMV, respectively. Combination indexes were calculated using the method of Chou and Talalay. Two derivatives (K14254 and K14266) that are considered to be prodrugs of aphidicolin were shown to inhibit HCMV and HSV replication comparably to aphidicolin. None of the tested substances inhibited adenovirus replication. Aphidicolin acted synergistically with aciclovir in a 1:1 molar ratio and with cidofovir in different ratios. Aphidicolin and its two antiviral active derivatives might represent useful additional tools for antiviral therapy of HSV and HCMV infections, especially in combination with clinically used drugs.
    Keywords: Organophosphonates ; Antiviral Agents -- Pharmacology ; Aphidicolin -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 0004-4172
    E-ISSN: 16167066
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 1999, Vol.736(1), pp.299-303
    Description: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a commonly used chelating agent. Its antiviral, antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects are well documented. DTPA forms a highly stable complex with lead (II) with an increased absorption coefficient and a bathochromic shift of the absorption maximum compared to pure DTPA. Based on this complex a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative detection of DTPA in biological fluids was developed. A calibration curve was prepared and linearity was shown in the concentration range between 10 mg l(-1) and 1000 mg l(-1) DTPA. The recovery in water and in human plasma showed the method to be suitable for routine use.
    Keywords: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    ISSN: 13872273
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  • 10
    In: Anti-Cancer Drugs, 2000, Vol.11(5), pp.369-376
    Description: Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a protein with a number of biological effects. It shows antitumoral, aspermatogenic, antiembryonic, immunosuppressive and antiviral properties. The cytotoxic effects appear to be specific for tumor cells as non-malignant cells seem to be unaffected in vitro. Unfortunately, the in vivo application of BS-RNase so far was successful only when it was administered intratumorally. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation was to improve the properties of BS-RNase by attachment to nanoparticles made of polylactic acid (PLA-NP) using an adsorption method. This preparation was tested in vitro against leukemia (MOLT-4) and lymphoma (H9) cell lines sensitive and resistant to cytarabine. No difference between the nanoparticle preparation and pure BS-RNase was found in these tests. To examine the in vivo effects, the preparations were tested for their aspermatogenic and antiembryonal efficacy compared to the pure BS-RNase as a rapid test for antitumoral activity. The aspermatogenic and antiembryonal effects were enhanced by the nanoparticle preparation. Consequently, BS-RNase loaded adsorptively to PLA-NP holds promise for the in vivo use as an antitumoral agent. Further research will investigate the efficacy of this preparations in an in vivo tumor model.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Endoribonucleases -- Pharmacology ; Leukemia -- Drug Therapy ; Lymphoma -- Drug Therapy ; Tumor Cells, Cultured -- Drug Effects;
    ISSN: 0959-4973
    E-ISSN: 14735741
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