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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin / Journal of Laboratory Medicine, Sept 1, 2010, Vol.34(5), p.257(4)
    Description: A variety of factors are known to influence qualitative and quantitative serological assays. Here, we discuss such pitfalls in serology emerging in a case of influenza A/H1N1v-hemagglutination inhibition test (H1N1-HHT) subsequent to hyposensitization and vaccinations. Assuming that hyposensitization and vaccinations are frequently provided services, their potential interference with serological assays should be considered. Keywords: disturbing factors in serodiagnosis; H1N1; hyposensitization; vaccination. Qualitative und quantitative serologische Verfahren konnen durch Interferenzen gestort sein. Wir konnten in einem exemplarischen Fall anhand des Influenza A/H1N1v-Hamagglutinationshemmtests (H1N1-HHT) zeigen, dass auch Hyposensibilisierungstherapie und Vakzination zu Interaktionen in der serologischen Diagnostik fuhren und die Aussagekraft des H1N1-HHT massiv beeintrachtigen. Vor dem Hintergrund, dass Hyposensibilisierung und Vakzination im Klinik- und Praxisalltag haufig erbrachte Leistungen darstellen, erscheint dieser Umstand berichtenswert. Schlusselworter: H1N1; Hyposensibilisierung; Storfaktoren in der serologischen Diagnostik; Vakzination.
    ISSN: 0342-3026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36506
    Description: Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Dermatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e19705
    Description: Glycyrrhizin is known to exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of an approved parenteral glycyrrhizin preparation (Stronger Neo-Minophafen C) were investigated on highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 virus replication, H5N1-induced apoptosis, and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial (A549) cells. Therapeutic glycyrrhizin concentrations substantially inhibited H5N1-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules CXCL10, interleukin 6, CCL2, and CCL5 (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 25 to 50 µg/ml) but interfered with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 100 µg/ml or higher). Glycyrrhizin also diminished monocyte migration towards supernatants of H5N1-infected A549 cells. The mechanism by which glycyrrhizin interferes with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression includes inhibition of H5N1-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and (in turn) reduced activation of NFκB, JNK, and p38, redox-sensitive signalling events known to be relevant for influenza A virus replication. Therefore, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases ; Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2011, Vol.68(6), pp.1079-1090
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Here, non-toxic concentrations of the anti-cancer kinase inhibitor sorafenib were shown to inhibit replication of different HCMV strains (including a ganciclovir-resistant strain) in different cell types. In contrast to established anti-HCMV drugs, sorafenib inhibited HCMV major immediate early promoter activity and HCMV immediate early antigen (IEA) expression. Sorafenib is known to inhibit Raf. Comparison of sorafenib with the MEK inhibitor U0126 suggested that sorafenib inhibits HCMV IEA expression through inhibition of Raf but independently of signaling through the Raf downstream kinase MEK 1/2. In concordance, siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf but not of MEK-reduced IEA expression. In conclusion, sorafenib diminished HCMV replication in clinically relevant concentrations and inhibited HCMV IEA expression, a pathophysiologically relevant event that is not affected by established anti-HCMV drugs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that Raf activation is involved in HCMV IEA expression.
    Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus ; Sorafenib ; Kinase inhibitor ; Raf ; Immediate early antigen ; Cancer chemotherapy ; Oncomodulation ; Antiviral therapy
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Phytomedicine, 2011, Vol.18(5), pp.384-386
    Description: The extract EPs 7630 is an approved drug for the treatment of acute bronchitis in Germany. The postulated mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of EPs 7630 in bronchitis patients include immunomodulatory and cytoprotective effects, inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, and increase of cilliary beat frequency on respiratory cells. Here, we investigated the influence of EPs 7630 on replication of a panel of respiratory viruses. Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs 7630 at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus. Therefore, antiviral effects may contribute to the beneficial effects exerted by EPs 7630 in acute bronchitis patients.
    Keywords: Pelargonium Sidoides ; Respiratory Viruses ; Acute Bronchitis ; Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0944-7113
    E-ISSN: 1618-095X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2014, Vol.203(6), pp.365-371
    Description: Vaccination has proven to be one of the best weapons protecting the mankind against infectious diseases. Along with the huge progress in microbiology, numerous highly efficacious and safe vaccines have been produced by conventional technology (cultivation), by the use of molecular biology (genetic modification), or by synthetic chemistry. Sterilising prevention is achieved by the stimulation of antibody production, while the stimulation of cell-mediated immune responses may prevent the outbreak of disease in consequence of an acute or reactivated infection. From several examples, two rules are deduced to evaluate the perspectives of future vaccine developments: They are promising, if (1) the natural infectious disease induces immunity or (2) passive immunisation (transfer of antibodies, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes) is successful in preventing infection.
    Keywords: Vaccines ; Passive immunisation ; Adoptive transfer of lymphocytes ; Hepatitis virus ; Influenza virus ; Herpes viruses ; HIV ; Tuberculosis ; Diphtheria ; Tetanus ; Oncogenic HPV
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2015, Vol.204(1), pp.1-4
    Description: Issue Title: Therapeutic vaccination in chronic hepatitis B - approaches, problems, and new perspectives
    Keywords: Biomedicine ; Medical Microbiology ; Immunology ; Public Health;
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2018, Vol.207(5), pp.249-253
    Description: Several virus infections affect the pregnancy itself as well as the foetal development (rubella, PVB19, VZV, HSV, HCMV, HBV, HIV). Prevention can be established by vaccination or an assessment of the immunity status as well as by chemotherapy. The following review provides an update to current aspects focusing on the role of serologic screening.
    Keywords: Pregnancy ; Vertical virus infections ; Serologic screening
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 9
    Language: German
    In: Medizinische Klinik, 2010, Vol.105(6), pp.399-403
    Description: Zur antiviralen Therapie des Zoster stehen in Deutschland fünf Präparate (Aciclovir, Valaciclovir, Famciclovir, Brivudin sowie das Reservemittel Foscarnet) zur Verfügung. Eine gezielte Therapie sollte zur Vermeidung von Spätkomplikationen so schnell wie möglich, spätestens innerhalb von 72 h nach Auftreten der typischen Zostereffloreszenzen, eingeleitet werden. Die effektivste Maßnahme zur Prävention von Windpocken liegt in der Impfung selbst. Es handelt sich um eine attenuierte Lebendvakzine auf der Basis des japanischen Oka-Stammes. Seit 2004 empfiehlt die STIKO (Ständige Impfkommission) die Varizellenimpfung als Standardimpfung für alle Kinder zwischen dem 11. und 14. Lebensmonat. Eine zweite Impfung sollte frühestens nach 4 Wochen und spätestens bis zum 17. Lebensjahr stattfinden. Eine passive Immunglobulingabe ist für Risikogruppen wie Schwangere, Immunsupprimierte oder Neugeborene von Müttern mit einer frischen Varizelleninfektion indiziert und sollte innerhalb von 72–96 h nach Varizellenexposition erfolgen. In der Shingles Prevention Study konnte die Effektivität einer Zosterimpfung nachgewiesen werden. In Germany, five antiviral agents are approved for antiviral therapy in zoster patients (acyclovir, valacyclovir, famciclovir, brivudine, and foscarnet). They should be administered within 72 h after rash onset and can significantly shorten viral replication and reduce the complications. In 2004, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) at the Robert Koch Institute suggested the active immunization against varicella with a live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain) for all children and young persons. The first dose is given between the ages of 11 and 14 months, the second at the earliest 4 weeks later. Passive immunization is indicated as postexposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals within 72–96 h after exposure. High-risk individuals are pregnant women, immunocompromised patients, or newborns, whose mothers had a primary varicella infection 5 days before or 2 days after birth. The Shingles Prevention Study demonstrated that vaccination is the most effective strategy for prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.
    Keywords: Varicella-zoster virus infection ; Risk groups ; Pregnancy ; Prevention ; Therapy
    ISSN: 0723-5003
    E-ISSN: 1615-6722
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  • 10
    Language: German
    In: Medizinische Klinik, 2010, Vol.105(5), pp.334-338
    Description: Das Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) gehört zu den acht bisher bekannten Herpesviren des Menschen, zeigt ein ubiquitäres Vorkommen und verursacht die akute exanthematöse Kinderkrankheit „Windpocken“. Typisch ist der hohe Kontagiositätsindex. Die Hauptübertragung erfolgt über Aerosole, seltener über direkten Kontakt mit Bläschenflüssigkeit. Eine Eigenschaft aller Herpesviren ist ihre Latenz. Nach der Primärinfektion wandert das Virus retrograd mit dem Zytoplasmastrom der Neurone zum Spinalganglion. Das Virusgenom verbleibt dort latent, weitgehend inaktiv im Kern der Spinalganglienzelle. Reaktivierungen sind bei allen latent Infizierten möglich. Gewöhnlich werden Reaktivierungen im höheren Alter (〉 50 Jahre) sowie bei Abfall der Gedächtniszellen für die T-Lymphozyten beobachtet. Gerade bei älteren Menschen und Risikogruppen (Immunsupprimierte) werden im Zusammenhang mit Reaktivierungen schwere Krankheitsverläufe beschrieben. Eine häufig auftretende und schwer behandelbare Komplikation stellt die postzosterische Neuralgie (PZN) dar, ein neuropathischer Schmerz, der definitionsgemäß 〉 6 Wochen nach dem akuten Infekt persistiert und eine adäquate antivirale Therapie und Schmerzbehandlung erfordert. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), known as one of the eight human herpesviridae, shows a ubiquitous distribution and is the cause for acute exanthema in childhood (chickenpox). VZV is highly infectious, spread by respiratory droplets and direct contact with fluid in vesicles. As a characteristic of the α-herpesviridae, VZV establishes latency in the nucleus of the paraspinal cells. Reactivation of VZV (zoster) is possible in all infected persons, but becomes more common with increasing age and a decline of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity. Immunocompromised patients and older people (〉 50 years) have an increased risk for a severe course of disease. The postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), as one of the most common and feared complications, is defined as a neuropathic pain (burning character), which persists for 〉 6 weeks after onset of disease and needs adequate antiviral and pain treatment.
    Keywords: VZV epidemiology ; Postherpetic neuralgia ; VZV diagnostics
    ISSN: 0723-5003
    E-ISSN: 1615-6722
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