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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Sept, 2012, Vol.52, p.29(4)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.04.002 Byline: Klaus Kaiser (a), Karsten Kalbitz (b) Abstract: Dissolved organic matter has been recognized as mobile, thus crucial to translocation of metals, pollutants but also of nutrients in soil. We present a conceptual model of the vertical movement of dissolved organic matter with soil water, which deviates from the view of a chromatographic stripping along the flow path. It assumes temporal immobilization (sorptive or by co-precipitation), followed by microbial processing, and re-release (by desorption or dissolution) into soil water of altered compounds. The proposed scheme explains well depth trends in age and composition of dissolved organic matter as well as of solid-phase organic matter in soil. It resolves the paradox of soil organic matter being oldest in the youngest part of the soil profile - the deep mineral subsoil. Author Affiliation: (a) Soil Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, von-Seckendorff-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany (b) Earth Surface Science, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands Article History: Received 29 August 2011; Revised 29 March 2012; Accepted 2 April 2012
    Keywords: Soils -- Analysis ; Flow (Dynamics) -- Analysis ; Soil Moisture -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: Ecology, May 2011, Vol.92(5), pp.1052-1062
    Description: Lignin is a main component of plant litter. Its degradation is thought to be critical for litter decomposition rates and the build‐up of soil organic matter. We studied the relationships between lignin degradation and the production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and of CO during litter decomposition. Needle or leaf litter of five species (Norway spruce, Scots pine, mountain ash, European beech, sycamore maple) and of different decomposition stage (freshly fallen and up to 27 months of field exposure) was incubated in the laboratory for two years. Lignin degradation was followed with the CuO method. Strong lignin degradation occurred during the first 200 incubation days, as revealed by decreasing yields of lignin‐derived phenols. Thereafter lignin degradation leveled off. This pattern was similar for fresh and decomposed litter, and it stands in contrast to the common view of limited lignin degradation in fresh litter. Dissolved organic carbon and CO also peaked in the first period of the incubation but were not interrelated. In the later phase of incubation, CO production was positively correlated with DOC amounts, suggesting that bioavailable, soluble compounds became a limiting factor for CO production. Lignin degradation occurred only when CO production was high, and not limited by bioavailable carbon. Thus carbon availability was the most important control on lignin degradation. In turn, lignin degradation could not explain differences in DOC and CO production over the study period. Our results challenge the traditional view regarding the fate and role of lignin during litter decomposition. Lignin degradation is controlled by the availability of easily decomposable carbon sources. Consequently, it occurs particularly in the initial phase of litter decomposition and is hampered at later stages if easily decomposable resources decline.
    Keywords: C Availability ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Lignin ; Plant Litter Decomposition ; Respiration Rates
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2011, Vol.43(8), pp.1738-1741
    Description: Understanding the turnover of organic matter (OM) in soils necessitates information on biological stability and ecological functions. For easy characterization of slowly cycling OM, treatments using oxidants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) have been applied. The rationale for that approach is, however, questionable and concerns exist to which extent abiotic oxidation can mimic biological mineralization. Here we compare biological mineralization of mineral-bound OM to its resistance to chemical oxidation by 6 mass% NaOCl. Water-extractable OM, sorbed to goethite, vermiculite, and pyrophyllite at pH 4.0 and in different background electrolytes (CaCl , NaCl, NaCl–NaH PO ) to favor or exclude certain binding mechanisms, was subsequently subjected to NaOCl treatment (pH 7, either for 18 or 6 × 6 h). Irrespective of mineral surface properties and mechanisms involved in OM sorption, NaOCl removed a constant portion of the sorbed OC. More OC survived when bound to goethite than to vermiculite, thus confirming previous results on the increase of oxidation-resistant OC with increasing Fe and Al (hydr)oxide contents in different soils. Mineralizable OC (within 90 days) was much smaller than the NaOCl-removable OC and both fractions were negatively correlated (  = 0.90 for the 18 h treatment;  = 0.86 for the 6 × 6 h treatment), suggesting that chemically oxidizable OM does not represent the portion of sorbed OM available to biological consumption. ► Organic matter resistant to wet oxidation has been considered a biologically stable fraction. ► The OC fraction in mineral−organic associations oxidizable by sodium hypochlorite was inversely related to the mineralizable OC fraction. ► Organic matter resistant to chemical oxidation cannot be used as proxy for biologically stable OM.
    Keywords: Sodium Hypochlorite ; Naocl ; Wet Oxidation ; Organic Matter ; Stabilization ; Passive Organic Matter Pool ; Stable Organic Matter ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2012, Vol.52, pp.29-32
    Description: Dissolved organic matter has been recognized as mobile, thus crucial to translocation of metals, pollutants but also of nutrients in soil. We present a conceptual model of the vertical movement of dissolved organic matter with soil water, which deviates from the view of a chromatographic stripping along the flow path. It assumes temporal immobilization (sorptive or by co-precipitation), followed by microbial processing, and re-release (by desorption or dissolution) into soil water of altered compounds. The proposed scheme explains well depth trends in age and composition of dissolved organic matter as well as of solid-phase organic matter in soil. It resolves the paradox of soil organic matter being oldest in the youngest part of the soil profile – the deep mineral subsoil. ► Improved conceptual model of DOM movement in soil. ► Physico-chemical immobilization by sorption and/or co-precipitation. ► Microbial processing of sorbed/co-precipitated matter, subsequent re-release (desorption/dissolution) of altered compounds. ► DOM mirrors soil organic matter. ► Model explains changes in soil organic matter properties with depth.
    Keywords: Adsorption ; Conceptual Model ; Co-Precipitation ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Microbial Processing ; Soil Organic Matter ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Dec, 2013, Vol.67, p.133(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.08.003 Byline: Thimo Klotzbucher, Klaus Kaiser, Timothy R. Filley, Karsten Kalbitz Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a major process providing DOM in soils. Herein, we examine processes causing the commonly observed increase in contribution of aromatic compounds to WSOM during litter decomposition, and unravel the relationship between lignin degradation and the production of aromatic WSOM. We analysed amounts and composition of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) produced during 27 months of decomposition of leaves and needles (ash, beech, maple, spruce, pine). The contribution of aromatic compounds to WSOM, as indicated by the specific UV absorbance of WSOM, remained constant or increased during decomposition. However, the contribution of lignin-derived compounds to the total phenolic products of.sup.13C-labelled tetramethylammonium hydroxide (.sup.13C-TMAH) thermochemolysis increased strongly (by 〉114%) within 27 months of decomposition. Simultaneous changes in contents of lignin phenols in solid litter residues (cupric oxide method as well as.sup.13C-TMAH thermochemolysis) were comparably small (-39% to +21% within 27 months). This suggests that the increasing contribution of lignin-derived compounds to WSOM during decomposition does not reflect compositional changes of solid litter residues, but rather the course of decomposition processes. In the light of recently published findings, these processes include: (i) progressive oxidative alteration of lignin that results in increasing solubility of lignin, (ii) preferential degradation of soluble, non-lignin compounds that limits their contribution to WSOM during later phases of decomposition. Author Affiliation: (a) Soil Sciences, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany (b) Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and the Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA (c) Earth Surface Science, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Article History: Received 13 March 2013; Revised 19 July 2013; Accepted 3 August 2013
    Keywords: Control Equipment Industry -- Production Processes ; Lignin ; Global Temperature Changes ; Hydroxides ; Copper Oxides ; Aromatic Compounds
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(2)
    Description: Temperate forests are assumed to be organic carbon (OC) sinks, either because of biomass increases upon elevated CO 2 in the atmosphere and large nitrogen deposition, or due to their age structure. Respective changes in soil OC and total nitrogen (TN) storage have rarely been proven. We analysed OC, TN, and bulk densities of 100 soil cores sampled along a regular grid in an old-growth deciduous forest at the Hainich National Park, Germany, in 2004 and again in 2009. Concentrations of OC and TN increased significantly from 2004 to 2009, mostly in the upper 0–20 cm of the mineral soil. Changes in the fine earth masses per soil volume impeded the detection of OC changes based on fixed soil volumes. When calculated on average fine earth masses, OC stocks increased by 323±146 g m −2 and TN stocks by 39±10 g m −2 at 0–20 cm soil depth from 2004 to 2009, giving average annual accumulation rates of 65±29 g OC m −2 yr −1 and 7.8±2 g N m −2 yr −1 . Accumulation rates were largest in the upper part of the B horizon. Regional increases in forest biomass, either due to recovery of forest biomass from previous forest management or to fertilization by elevated CO 2 and N deposition, are likely causes for the gains in soil OC and TN. As TN increased stronger (1.3% yr −1 of existing stocks) than OC (0.9% yr −1 ), the OC-to-TN ratios declined significantly. Results of regression analyses between changes in OC and TN stocks suggest that at no change in OC, still 3.8 g TN m −2 yr −1 accumulated. Potential causes for the increase in TN in excess to OC are fixation of inorganic N by the clay-rich soil or changes in microbial communities. The increase in soil OC corresponded on average to 6–13% of the estimated increase in net biome productivity.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Earth Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1 June 2012, Vol.355(1/2), pp.407-416
    Description: Background and aims Environmental factors such as climate and atmospheric CO2 control inputs of plant-derived matter into soils, which then determines properties and decomposition of soil organic matter. We studied how dissolved organic matter (DOM) in forest floors responded to six years of litter fall manipulation at a spruce site. Methods Experimental treatments included (i) ambient litter fall, as well as (ii) reduction or (iii) increase of litter fall, each by 80%. Results Reduced litter input did not change fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which suggests that much of the mobile DOM in forest floors is not from recent litter but older, partly degraded material. Litter addition increased DOC fluxes over 6 years by 68% (Oi), 23% (Oe) and 12% (Oa). This was mainly due to excessive DOM production in Oi horizons, while net DOM production in Oe and Oa horizons decreased. Upon litter addition, aromaticity and molecule complexity of DOM released from the Oi horizon increased, but decreased for DOM leaving Oa horizons. The results suggest that DOM production by lignin degradation was enhanced in Oi but reduced in Oe and Oa horizons upon litter addition. Conclusions Recent litter is not an important source for DOM entering mineral soils, but increased litter input changes organic matter decomposition, thus affecting fluxes and properties of DOM within forest floors.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Botany ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Materials ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences
    ISSN: 0032079X
    E-ISSN: 15735036
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.367(1), pp.579-589
    Keywords: Litter fall manipulation ; Lignin degradation ; Fungi-to-bacteria ratio ; Temperate forest ; Field experiment
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2012, Vol.355(1), pp.407-416
    Keywords: Litter manipulation ; Dissolved organic matter ; Field experiment ; Soil organic matter
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 10
    In: Global Change Biology, July 2017, Vol.23(7), pp.2535-2536
    Description: Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon () increased in many surface waters in Europe and North America over the last two or three decades. Musolff et al. (2017) recently suggested that decreasing atmospheric N deposition has triggered increasing dissimilatory reduction and dissolution of Fe oxides in riparian zone soil, which has caused the release of sorbed organic matter (as well as sorbed phosphate). The wide organic carbon‐to‐iron ratios found by Musolff et al. (2017) are inconsistent with actual ratios found during reductive dissolution of Fe oxides. It is extremely unlikely that increased reductive dissolution of Fe oxides is the dominant mechanism causing the observed increases in stream .
    Keywords: Deposition ; Iron ; Organic Matter ; Phosphate ; Rivers ; Iron ; Oxides ; Oxides ; Iron ; Streams ; Nitrates ; Dissolution ; Surface Water ; Aquatic Plants ; Organic Matter ; Oxides ; Phosphates ; Deposition ; Oxides ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Dissolution ; Iron ; Reduction ; Riparian Zone ; Riparian Environments ; Streams ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Nitrate ; Riparian Land ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Soils ; Dissolution ; Ratios ; Organic Matter ; Soils;
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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