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  • 1
    Format: x, 267 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    ISBN: 9781447324836 , 9781447324843 , 9781447324874
    Series Statement: Third sector research series
    Language: English
    Keywords: Großbritannien ; Ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit ; Sozialer Wandel ; Geschichte 1981-2012
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington : National Academies Press
    Format: Online-Ressource (376 p)
    ISBN: 9780309048279 , 9780309585118
    Content: Employment <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Health Benefits -- Copyright -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Contents -- Summary -- EMPLOYMENT-BASED HEALTH BENEFITS <em class="albert-highlight">IN</em> CONTEXT -- Historical Development -- Key Statistics -- International Comparisons -- Scope <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Functions -- Access to Health Services -- Costs <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Context -- DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF THE CURRENT SYSTEM -- <em class="albert-highlight">Voluntary</em> Group Purchase -- Lack of Universal Coverage -- Risk Selection <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Discrimination -- Dispersed Power <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Accountability -- Diversity -- Innovation -- Discontinuity -- Barriers to Cost Management -- Complexity -- Strengths <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Limitations of These Features -- FUTURE DIRECTIONS -- To Improve a <em class="albert-highlight">Voluntary</em> System -- Reducing or Compensating for Risk Selection -- Subsidizing Coverage -- Other Regulatory Issues -- The Financing Dilemma -- Beyond <em class="albert-highlight">Voluntary</em> Coverage -- Research Agenda -- FINAL THOUGHTS -- 1 Background <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Introduction -- EMPLOYMENT-BASED HEALTH BENEFITS <em class="albert-highlight">IN</em> CONTEXT -- OVERVIEW OF REPORT -- WHY THIS STUDY? -- Relation to the Debate over Health Care Reform -- Issues <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Concerns -- KEY CONCEPTS <em class="albert-highlight">AND</em> TERMS AS USED <em class="albert-highlight">IN</em> THIS REPORT -- Employment-Based Health Benefits -- Social Insurance <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Private Insurance -- Small <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Large Groups -- Risk, Insurance, <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Benefits -- Insurable Events -- Moral Hazard, Biased Selection, Risk Segmentation, <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Underwriting -- CONCLUSION -- 2 Origins <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Evolution of Employment-Based Health Benefits -- THE BIRTH OF INSURANCE FOR MEDICAL CARE EXPENSES -- Early <em class="albert-highlight">Voluntary</em> Initiatives -- Early Public <em class="albert-highlight">Action</em> -- THE DIVERGENT PATH OF THE UNITED STATES -- Unsuccessful Early State Initiatives -- Proposals for National Health Insurance <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> the Depression <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Postwar Years -- Innovation <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> the Private Sector -- Employment-Based Benefits, Federal Regulations, <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Union Policies -- Growth <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> <em class="albert-highlight">Change</em> <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Health Insurance Products.
    Note: Description based upon print version of record , ""Employment and Health Benefits""; ""Copyright""; ""Preface""; ""Acknowledgments""; ""Contents""; ""Summary""; ""EMPLOYMENT-BASED HEALTH BENEFITS IN CONTEXT""; ""Historical Development""; ""Key Statistics""; ""International Comparisons""; ""Scope and Functions""; ""Access to Health Services""; ""Costs in Context""; ""DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF THE CURRENT SYSTEM""; ""Voluntary Group Purchase""; ""Lack of Universal Coverage""; ""Risk Selection and Discrimination""; ""Dispersed Power and Accountability""; ""Diversity""; ""Innovation""; ""Discontinuity""; ""Barriers to Cost Management"" , ""Complexity""""Strengths and Limitations of These Features""; ""FUTURE DIRECTIONS""; ""To Improve a Voluntary System""; ""Reducing or Compensating for Risk Selection""; ""Subsidizing Coverage""; ""Other Regulatory Issues""; ""The Financing Dilemma""; ""Beyond Voluntary Coverage""; ""Research Agenda""; ""FINAL THOUGHTS""; ""1 Background and Introduction""; ""EMPLOYMENT-BASED HEALTH BENEFITS IN CONTEXT""; ""OVERVIEW OF REPORT""; ""WHY THIS STUDY?""; ""Relation to the Debate over Health Care Reform""; ""Issues and Concerns""; ""KEY CONCEPTS AND TERMS AS USED IN THIS REPORT"" , ""Employment-Based Health Benefits""""Social Insurance and Private Insurance""; ""Small and Large Groups""; ""Risk, Insurance, and Benefits""; ""Insurable Events""; ""Moral Hazard, Biased Selection, Risk Segmentation, and Underwriting""; ""CONCLUSION""; ""2 Origins and Evolution of Employment-Based Health Benefits""; ""THE BIRTH OF INSURANCE FOR MEDICAL CARE EXPENSES""; ""Early Voluntary Initiatives""; ""Early Public Action""; ""THE DIVERGENT PATH OF THE UNITED STATES""; ""Unsuccessful Early State Initiatives""; ""Proposals for National Health Insurance in the Depression and Postwar Years"" , ""Innovation in the Private Sector""""Employment-Based Benefits, Federal Regulations, and Union Policies""; ""Growth and Change in Health Insurance Products""; ""Federal Government as Sponsor of Employee Health Benefits Program""; ""EARLY COST MANAGEMENT EFFORTS BY INSURERS AND OTHERS""; ""Management of the Risk Pool""; ""Design of the Benefit Plan""; ""Controls on Payments to Providers""; ""Constraints on Supply""; ""Utilization Review""; ""Impact of Early Cost Management Efforts""; ""THE LIMITS OF VOLUNTARY HEALTH BENEFITS AND MEDICARE AND MEDICAID""; ""Medicare""; ""Medicaid"" , ""National Health Insurance Revisited""""FEDERAL REGULATION AND THE EMPLOYER'S GROWING ROLE""; ""Federal and State Roles Before 1974""; ""The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974""; ""CONCLUSION""; ""3 Employment-Based Health Benefits Today""; ""DATA SOURCES""; ""WHO IS AND IS NOT COVERED BY EMPLOYMENT-BASED HEALTH BENEFITS?""; ""Covered Workers and Family Members""; ""Uninsured Workers and Family Members""; ""Retirees""; ""Sources of Variation in Employment-Based Coverage""; ""WHAT TYPES OF COVERAGE ARE OFFERED?""; ""Types of Health Plans""; ""Conventional Plans"" , ""Network Plans""
    Additional Edition: Print version Employment and Health Benefits : A Connection at Risk
    Language: English
    Keywords: Electronic books
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  • 3
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (434 pages)
    Edition: 1st ed
    ISBN: 9781783602551 , 9781783602537
    Content: A collection of independent sources of data on global health offering unique and essential information for anyone working in the field
    Content: Front Cover -- Praise for Previous Editions -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Boxes, Tables <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Figures -- Images -- Acknowledgements -- Introduction -- The Global Political <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Economic Architecture -- Health Systems: Current Issues <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Debates -- Beyond Healthcare -- Watching -- Resistance, Actions <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> <em class="albert-highlight">Change</em> -- Towards a Shared Narrative for <em class="albert-highlight">Change</em> -- Section A: The Global Political <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Economic Architecture -- A1: The Health Crises of Neoliberal Globalization -- Introduction -- From Neoliberalism 1.0 to Neoliberalism 3.0: An Abbreviated History -- Modelling Health Costs -- Towards a Progressive Public Health Agenda -- Where Should Health Activists Start? -- Note -- References -- A2: Fiscal Policies <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Europe <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> the Wake of the Economic Crisis: Implications for Health -- Genesis of the Economic Crisis <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Europe -- Influence of Policies <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Germany -- Crisis <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> the US <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Its Aftermath -- Greece <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Spain: Acute Manifestations of the Crisis -- Social Consequences -- Greece: The Face of the Health Crisis <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Europe -- Manifestations of the Crisis on Healthcare <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Different Parts of Europe -- Solidarity <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> the Midst of a Crisis -- Notes -- References -- A3: Social Struggle, Progressive Governments, <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Health <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Latin America -- Social Changes <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> the Health Sector -- Advances Towards Universal Public Health Systems -- Countries Where Neoliberal Reforms Dominate -- Conclusions -- References -- A4: After the Arab Spring -- Neoliberal Policies <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> the Decline of the Welfare State -- Praise from the IMF -- <em class="albert-highlight">Change</em> <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> <em class="albert-highlight">Continuity</em> -- Rebuilding the Neoliberal Agenda -- Conclusions -- Note -- References -- Section B: Health Systems: Current Issues <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Debates -- B1: The Current Discourse On Universal Health Coverage (UHC) -- The Ideological Foundations of UHC -- The Ambiguities of UHC -- Where is the Evidence? -- Public Systems Efficiencies
    Content: UHC in Advanced Capitalist Countries -- UHC in Low- and Middle-Income Countries -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- B2: The National Health Service (NHS): Prey to Neoliberal Lust for Markets -- The NHS as It Was Conceived -- Thatcher and the Attack on the NHS -- The Health and Social Care Act (HSCA) and the New 'National Healthcare Market' -- The Failure of Democracy to Save the NHS -- The Moral of the Story of the NHS -- The Challenge for Health Professionals -- References -- B3: Reform of the Mexican Healthcare System: The Untold Story -- The Mexican Health System -- Reforms to Promote a Clear Agenda -- Health Insurance: The Fashionable 'Success Story' -- An Uncertain Future -- Notes -- References -- B4: Brazil: The Rocky Road to a Universal Healthcare System -- The Health System in Brazil -- Challenges and Limitations of SUS -- Looking Ahead -- References -- B5: South Africa: Building or Destroying Health Systems? -- Proposed Reforms -- Obstacles Posed by Treasury Policy -- Private Sector Challenges -- Strategic 'Purchasing' of Care? -- Notes -- References -- B6: The Right to Health in Tunisia -- Social Security in the Pre-Independence Period -- Provision of Free Healthcare After Independence -- Authoritarian Rule and Crisis -- Structural Adjustment Programmes and the Erosion of the Right to Health -- Neoliberal Policies and Healthcare for Those Who Can Afford It -- The Right to Health in the Aftermath of the 'Freedom and Dignity Revolution' -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- B7: The Revival of Community Health Workers in National Health Systems -- Introduction -- Programa de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde in Brazil -- South Africa: Still Seeking a Clear Role for CHWs -- India's 'ASHA' Programme -- Behvarz in Iran: Linchpin of Primary Healthcare -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- B8: The Crisis of Maternal and Reproductive Health
    Content: Global Progress in Reducing Maternal Mortality Rates, 1990-2010 -- Why Pregnancy Kills Women in Africa -- Interventions That Could Make a Difference -- Conclusion -- References -- B9: The Global Health Workforce Crisis -- The 'Big Picture' Challenges for Human Resources for Health -- Flawed Analysis and Proposals -- WHO's Global Code of Practice: Fatally Deficient -- Who Is a Health Worker? -- Steps Forward in Mitigating the Crisis -- Scaling Up Transformative Education -- Conclusion -- References -- B10: The Politics and Landscape of Medical Devices in a Global Market -- Medical Device Innovation, Safety and Regulation -- Access and Organization -- The Politics of Medical Technology and Global Health -- Conclusion -- References -- Section C: Beyond Healthcare -- C1: Social Protection: Reimagining Development -- History of the Debate on 'Development' -- Poverty Reduction and Social Development -- Universal Social Protection -- Conclusion -- References -- C2: Non-Communicable Diseases: Is Big Business Hijacking the Debate? -- Evidence as a Marketing Tool -- A Fresh Look at Mortality and 'Burden of Disease' Data -- What Does the GBD Data Show? -- A Critical Look at the GBD -- Promoting NCDs as a Profit-Making Arena -- Conclusions -- Notes -- References -- C3: Nutrition and Food Sovereignty -- Erosion of Food Sovereignty and Impact on Nutritional Status in India -- Factors Responsible for the Erosion of Food Sovereignty -- Food Support Schemes -- Challenges to Food Sovereignty and the Risks to Human Health in the Pacific Islands -- Effect on Farmers of Changing Patterns of Production -- Food Prices, Food Accessibility and Food Culture -- Erosion of Policy Space -- Conclusion -- Acknowledgements -- Notes -- References -- C4: Breaking Free from Gender-Based Violence -- Recognition of Gender-Based Violence as a Human Rights and Public Health Issue
    Content: Gender-Based Violence: How Prevalent Is It? -- Consequences for Human Rights and Health -- Health System Response to Gender-Based Violence -- The Way Ahead -- Note -- C5: Talking Shit: Is Community Led Total Sanitation Empowering or Divisive? -- Distinctive Features of CLTS -- How Sustainable Is CLTS? -- A Rights-Based Analysis of CLTS -- Who Takes Responsibility? -- Power Dynamics of CLTS -- Conclusion -- References -- C6: Extractive Industries and Health -- Impact of Extractive Industries on Health -- Social Environment and Health -- Economic Benefits: Questioning Claims -- Canada: A 'Safe Haven' for Mining Companies -- Conclusions: Mining Justice and Better Health are Possible -- Note -- References -- Section D: Watching -- D1: WHO Reform: For What Purpose? -- Background to Reforms in WHO -- Evaluation of the Reforms -- Global Health Governance: A Sub-Domain of Global Economic Governance -- The Features and Capabilities of the 'WHO We Need' -- Scorecard for the Current Reform Programme -- An Advocacy Programme for Civil Society: 'Save WHO!' -- Notes -- References -- D2: A New 'Business Model' for NGOs? -- Introduction -- Conceptual and Definitional Ambiguity -- Numbers and Scope -- Implications for Governance and Health Systems -- Two Vignettes of NGO-Led 'Interventions' -- Risk of Co-Option -- In Lieu of a Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- D3: Private Sector Influence on Public Health Policy -- The Gates Foundation -- The Global Fund -- The GAVI Alliance -- The Role of Mckinsey and Co. in the Privatization of the NHS -- The Tax Avoidance Industry -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- D4 : The TRIPS Agreement: Two Decades of Failed Promises -- TRIPS Flexibilities: Do They Work? -- Free Trade Agreements: Going Beyond TRIPS -- Using the Bogey of 'Counterfeit' to Criminalize Generic Drugs -- Voluntary Licences and Differential Pricing
    Content: International Investment Agreements -- The Way Forward -- Notes -- References -- D5: Cholera Epidemic in Haiti -- Haiti: A History of Occupation -- Structural Adjustment Programmes and UN Presence -- The Earthquake and Its Aftermath -- Two Tales and an Epidemic -- The Response from the International Community -- Conclusion -- References -- D6: The International Finance Corporation's 'Health in Africa' Initiative -- IFC's Track Record in Health -- Poor Progress on Health in Africa Investments -- High-Cost, Low-Impact Investments -- Turning a Blind Eye to Measuring Impact -- Unaccountable and Opaque: Use of Financial Intermediaries -- The World Bank's Response to Health in Africa's Mid-Term Evaluation -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- D7: The Ethical Cost of Offshoring Clinical Trials -- Offshoring: At What Price? -- Lack of Transparency and Accountability -- Case Studies: Deficient Regulatory Environments -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- Section E: Resistance, Actions and Change -- E1: Reframing Health in Bolivia Around the Concept of 'Living Well' -- Background -- Living Well -- Structural Changes in the Health Sector: 'Mobilized for the Right to Health and Life' for Living Well -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- E2: Social Change in El Salvador and the Health Sector -- Historical Backdrop -- The Struggle Against Military Dictatorship -- The Health System in El Salvador -- The New Government and Health Reform -- The Reform Process -- Evidence of Success -- Obstacles and Constraints -- Notes -- References -- E3: Venezuela: The Impact on Health of Social Change -- New Vision of Health in the 1999 Constitution -- Transforming Health: Mission Barrio Adentro -- Developing a Health Workforce and Social Participation -- The Results are Evident -- The Struggle Ahead -- References
    Content: E4: Colombia: Social Struggles against the Commodification of Health
    Additional Edition: Print version Movement, People's Health Global Health Watch 4 : An Alternative World Health Report
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (557 p)
    ISBN: 9780195363937 , 9780195363937
    Content: Between 1870 and 1920, two generations of European and American intellectuals created a transatlantic community of philosophical and political discourse. Uncertain Victory, the first comparative study of ideas and politics in France, Germany, America, and Great Britain during these years, demonstrates how the theoretical foundations for new programs of social democracy and progressivism were created by a wide range of theorists and activists including William James, T.H. Green, Beatrice and Sidney Webb, Jean Jaurès, Wilhelm Dilthey, Max Weber, and John Dewey
    Content: Contents -- Introduction -- PART ONE -- Chapter 1. The Philosophy of the Via Media -- 1. Beyond Kant: Religion <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Science <em class="albert-highlight">in</em> Nineteenth-Century Thought -- 2. Portraits: A Generation of Radical Philosophers -- 3. Clearing the Field: Critiques of Associationism <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Idealism -- Chapter 2. The Radical Theory of Knowledge -- 1. The Immediacy of Lived Experience -- 2. The Consciousness of <em class="albert-highlight">Continuity</em> <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> the <em class="albert-highlight">Continuity</em> of Consciousness -- 3. <em class="albert-highlight">Voluntary</em> <em class="albert-highlight">Action</em> <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Pragmatic Truth -- Chapter 3. Culture, Understanding, <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> History -- 1. The Social <em class="albert-highlight">and</em> Meaningful Quality of Experience
    Content: 2. Interpretation as a Means of Knowing -- 3. The Historical Sensibility -- Chapter 4. The Ethics of Rational Benevolence -- 1. Beyond Utilitarianism and Intuitionism -- 2. The Conflict Between Prudence and Justice -- 3. The Historicity of Ethics and the Burden of Responsibility -- Chapter 5. From Philosophy to Politics -- 1. The Politics of the Via Media -- 2. Political Reform and the Role of Intellectuals -- 3. Resurrecting the Common Good -- PART TWO -- Chapter 6. From Socialism to Social Democracy -- 1. The Origins of Social Democracy -- 2. The Critique of Socialist Reason
    Content: 3. Rethinking Economic Theory: Where Marx Went Wrong -- Chapter 7. Social Democratic Politics -- 1. Reform Strategy and the Tactics of Liberal Alliance -- 2. Democracy and the Problem of Expertise -- 3. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity Reconsidered -- Chapter 8. From Liberalism to Progressivism -- 1. Drifting from Liberalism -- 2. Understanding Social Experience -- 3. The Problem of Ethics in a Disenchanted World -- Chapter 9. Progressive Politics -- 1. Political Action and Cultural Change -- 2. Progressive Education -- 3. Bureaucracy versus Democracy -- Chapter 10. The Prospect of Justice
    Content: 1. Freedom and Property -- 2. Toward a Harmony of Free Wills -- 3. Conclusion: Knowledge, Responsibility, and Reform -- Notes -- Bibliography -- Index -- A -- B -- C -- D -- E -- F -- G -- H -- I -- J -- K -- L -- M -- N -- O -- P -- R -- S -- T -- U -- V -- W -- Y
    Note: Description based upon print version of record
    Additional Edition: Print version Kloppenberg, James T Uncertain Victory : Social Democracy and Progressivism in European and American Thought, 1870-1920
    Language: English
    Keywords: Electronic books
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