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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D. C. : World Bank Publications
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (348 Seiten)
    Edition: 1st ed
    ISBN: 9781464819421
    Series Statement: World Development Report
    Note: Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources , Front Cover -- Contents -- Foreword -- Acknowledgments -- Key takeaways -- Glossary -- Abbreviations -- Overview -- Migration is necessary for all countries -- A practical framework for policy makers: The Match and Motive Matrix -- When the match is strong, the gains are large -- When the match is weak, the costs need to be shared-and reduced-multilaterally -- Making migration work better requires doing things differently -- A message of hope -- Notes -- References -- 1 The Match and Motive Matrix -- Key messages -- A people-centric approach -- A focus on foreign nationals -- Two perspectives: Labor economics and international law -- The Match and Motive Matrix -- Policy priorities -- Notes -- References -- Spotlight 1 History -- Part 1 Migration is increasingly necessary for countries at all income levels -- 2 The numbers: Understanding who moves, where to, and why -- Key messages -- Current trends -- Motives and patterns -- Notes -- References -- Spotlight 2 Data -- 3 The outlook: Changing patterns, needs, and risks -- Key messages -- Demographics: The coming competition for workers -- Climate change: New risks of distressed movements -- Notes -- References -- Spotlight 3 Methodological considerations -- Part 2 When the match is strong, the gains are large -- 4 Migrants: Prospering-and even more so with rights -- Key messages -- Receiving higher wages -- Accessing better services -- Dealing with social costs -- Returning -- Failing, sometimes -- Notes -- References -- Spotlight 4 Gender -- 5 Origin countries: Managing migration for development -- Key messages -- Reaping the full development benefits of remittances -- Leveraging knowledge transfers -- Managing labor market impacts -- Taking a strategic approach -- Notes -- References -- Spotlight 5 Measurement of remittances , 6 Destination countries: Maximizing gains through economic and social policies -- Key messages -- Benefiting from migrants' labor -- Maximizing economic gains -- Fostering social inclusion -- Notes -- References -- Spotlight 6 Racism, xenophobia, and discrimination -- Part 3 When the match is weak, the costs need to be shared-and reduced-multilaterally -- 7 Refugees: Managing with a medium-term perspective -- Key messages -- Recognizing the development challenge -- Enhancing responsibility-sharing through regional solidarity -- Going beyond emergency responses -- Making progress toward durable solutions by combining legal status and access to opportunities -- Notes -- References -- Spotlight 7 Internal displacement and statelessness -- 8 Distressed migrants: Preserving dignity -- Key messages -- Acknowledging policy trade-offs -- Extending international protection -- Shifting migrants' incentives through legal pathways -- Strengthening the match of migrants' skills and attributes through development -- Notes -- References -- Spotlight 8 "Root causes" and development -- Part 4 Making migration work better requires doing things differently -- 9 Recommendations: Making migration work better -- Key messages -- Introduction -- Strong match: Maximize gains for all -- Weak match and fear motive: Ensure the sustainability of refugee-hosting, including through responsibility-sharing -- Weak match and no fear motive: Respect dignity and reduce the need for distressed movements -- Essentials for reform -- Notes -- References -- Boxes -- Box O.1 How many migrants are there, and where do they live? -- Box 1.1 Foreign nationals or foreign-born? -- Box 2.1 Migration data in this Report -- Box 3.1 Can technology solve labor market mismatches across countries? -- Box 3.2 Compounded drivers of migration in Sub-Saharan Africa , Box 4.1 Migrating to seek more inclusive gender norms: The case of highly educated women -- Box 5.1 Migrants can transfer institutional and social norms to their origin country -- Box 5.2 The Philippines: A case study of how origin countries can benefit from migration -- Box 6.1 The longer-term economic effects of migration -- Box 6.2 Profound cultural changes are under way -- Box 6.3 Lessons from Germany: The successful integration of asylum-seekers and refugees -- Box 7.1 Ukrainian refugee crisis -- Box 7.2 Among refugees, some have higher protection needs -- Box 7.3 An example of development financing: IDA's Window for Host Communities and Refugees -- Box 7.4 Preparedness is critical when refugee situations are predictable or chronic -- Box 7.5 Return: Homecoming or new movement? -- Box 7.6 Creating better outcomes through integration: Lessons from Colombia -- Box S7.1 IDPs versus refugees -- Box S7.2 Internal displacement and assistance targeting -- Box 8.1 The externalization of migration policy -- Box 8.2 The evolving definition of refugee -- Box 8.3 Climate-related mobility in Small Island Developing States -- Box 8.4 Smugglers and traffickers -- Box 9.1 Priorities for research ahead -- Figures -- Figure O.1 Widely different demographic forces are at play in Italy, Mexico, and Nigeria -- Figure O.2 Two perspectives on cross-border migration -- Figure O.3 "Match" determines the net gains of receiving migrants -- "motive" determines their international protection needs -- Figure O.4 When the match is strong, policies in both destination and origin countries can maximize the gains of migration -- Figure O.5 When the match is weaker, policy making involves trade-offs for the destination country between economic gains and migrants' dignity -- Figure O.6 Policy actions in both origin and destination countries can reduce distressed migration , Figure O.7 Different types of migration require distinct forms of international cooperation -- Figure 1.1 Distinct groups of migrants require distinct policy responses -- Figure B1.1.1 In many high-income OECD countries, over half of foreign-born people have been naturalized -- Figure 1.2 When migrants are a strong match, their contributions exceed the costs of their integration -- Figure 1.3 When people have a "well-founded fear" of harm if they return to their country of origin, destination countries are obligated to host them -- Figure 1.4 The Match and Motive Matrix combines the perspectives of labor economics and international law to distinguish between four types of movements -- Figure 1.5 Destination countries' policies partly determine where migrants fit in the Match and Motive Matrix -- Figure 1.6 The Match and Motive Matrix helps to identify policy priorities for distinct groups of migrants -- Figure 1.7 The challenge for countries is to enhance the match of migrants and reduce distressed movements -- Figure 2.1 Patterns of movements reflect distinct matches and motives -- Figure 2.2 A large share of migrants and refugees live in low- and middle-income countries -- Figure 2.3 Since 1960, the share of emigrants in low-income countries' population has almost doubled -- Figure 2.4 Since 1960, the share of immigrants and naturalized citizens in high-income countries' population has tripled -- Figure 2.5 Cross-border movements vary greatly by region -- Figure 2.6 Where migrants go to largely depends on where they come from -- Figure 2.7 Most refugees come from a limited number of countries of origin-and increasingly so -- Figure 2.8 Refugee flows spike after a crisis and then slow over time -- Figure 2.9 Refugees are increasingly originating from middle-income countries , Figure S2.1 Many population censuses do not collect basic and consistent data on migration -- Figure 3.1 Demographics and climate change are transforming migration patterns -- Figure 3.2 Widely different demographic forces are at play in Italy, Mexico, and Nigeria -- Figure 3.3 The population is growing quickly in lower-income countries, whereas it will soon begin to shrink in higher-income countries -- Figure 3.4 Higher-income countries are aging rapidly, whereas lower-income countries remain young -- Figure 3.5 In high-income countries, the elderly population is growing, whereas the working-age population is declining -- Figure 3.6 By 2050, in the high-income OECD countries there will be fewer than two working-age individuals to support every elderly person -- Figure 3.7 The number of children born per woman is declining rapidly in middle-income countries -- Figure 3.8 Many upper-middle-income countries are reaching shares of elderly usually seen in higher-income countries -- Figure 3.9 By 2050, Sub-Saharan Africa will be the only region with population growth -- Figure B3.1.1 US employment growth is expected to be higher for occupations having younger and less-educated workers -- Figure 3.10 Climate change affects migration through income and habitability -- Figure B3.2.1 Some intertwined drivers of mobility -- Figure 4.1 When migrants' skills and attributes match the needs of destination societies, the gains are large -- Figure 4.2 In Bangladesh, Ghana, and India, income gains from international migration are many times greater than those from internal migration -- Figure 4.3 Decades of economic growth are needed in the country of origin for non-migrants to achieve the economic gains of migrants who moved to high-income countries -- Figure 4.4 For low-skilled migrants, incomes surge at the destination , Figure 4.5 South Asian workers moving to Gulf Cooperation Council countries face some of the highest migration costs
    Additional Edition: Erscheint auch als Druck-Ausgabe World Bank, World World Development Report 2023 Washington, D. C. : World Bank Publications,c2023 ISBN 978-1-4648-1941-4
    Language: English
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