Chemosphere, 2001, Vol.45(4), pp.543-551
Spray drift and edge-of-field runoff are regarded as important routes of nonpoint-source pesticide input into aquatic surface waters, with current regulatory risk assessment in Europe focussing largely on spray drift. However, the two routes of entry had rarely been compared directly in the same catchment. To this end, the concentrations and loads of the current-use insecticides azinphos-methyl (AZP) and endosulfan (END) were monitored in the Lourens River, South Africa downstream of a 400-ha fruit orchard area during normal farming practice. Spray drift-related peak pesticide levels in the tributaries were in the range of 95th-percentiles of standard drift values according to regulatory risk assessment procedures. Resulting concentrations in Lourens River water samples (n = 3) at a discharge of 0.28 m super(3)/s were as high as 0.04 plus or minus 0.01 mu g/l AZP and 0.07 plus or minus 0.02 mu g/l END. Pesticide levels at the same site during runoff following 3 storm events varying in rainfall between 6.8 and 18.4 mm/d (discharge: 7.5-22.4 m super(3)/s) were considerably higher: by factors between 6 and 37 for AZP (0.26-1.5 mu g/l) and between 2 and 41 for END (0.13-2.9 mu g/l). Levels of pesticides associated with suspended particles were increased during runoff only up to 1247 mu g/kg AZP and 12082 mu g/kg END. A possible reason for the relative importance of runoff is that runoff largely integrates potential pesticide input over both time and space, because the prerequisites for the occurrence of runoff in terms of application and plot characteristics as well as meteorological conditions are far less specific than for spray drift. A probability analysis based on pesticide application patterns and 10-yr rainfall data indicates that the frequencies of rainfall events greater than or equal to 10 and greater than or equal to 15 mm/d are 3.4 and 1.7 per spraying season, respectively.
Catchment ; Exposure Assessment ; Insecticides ; Nonpoint-Source Pollution ; Orchards ; Runoff ; Spray Drift ; Chemistry ; Ecology
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