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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Toxicology Letters, 16 September 2016, Vol.258, pp.S45-S46
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.06.1266 Byline: Dieter Schrenk Author Affiliation: Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0378-4274
    E-ISSN: 1879-3169
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Toxicology Letters, 16 September 2016, Vol.258, pp.S50-S51
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.06.1281 Byline: Dieter Schrenk Author Affiliation: Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0378-4274
    E-ISSN: 1879-3169
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  • 3
    In: Nature, 2011, Vol.478(7368), p.197
    Description: Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by environmental xenobiotic toxic chemicals, for instance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as embryogenesis, transformation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. But the identity of an endogenous ligand activating the AHR under physiological conditions in the absence of environmental toxic chemicals is still unknown. Here we identify the tryptophan (Trp) catabolite kynurenine (Kyn) as an endogenous ligand of the human AHR that is constitutively generated by human tumour cells via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), a liver- and neuron-derived Trp-degrading enzyme not yet implicated in cancer biology. TDO-derived Kyn suppresses antitumour immune responses and promotes tumour-cell survival and motility through the AHR in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. The TDO-AHR pathway is active in human brain tumours and is associated with malignant progression and poor survival. Because Kyn is produced during cancer progression and inflammation in the local microenvironment in amounts sufficient for activating the human AHR, these results provide evidence for a previously unidentified pathophysiological function of the AHR with profound implications for cancer and immune biology.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Toxicology Letters, 17 June 2012, Vol.211, pp.S22-S22
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0378-4274
    E-ISSN: 1879-3169
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biologie in unserer Zeit, 06/2011, Vol.41(3), pp.174-180
    ISSN: Biologie in unserer Zeit
    E-ISSN: 0045205X
    E-ISSN: 1521415X
    Source: Wiley (via CrossRef)
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  • 6
    Language: German
    In: Pharmazie in unserer Zeit, July 2011, Vol.40(4), pp.316-24
    Keywords: Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions ; Dietary Supplements -- Toxicity ; Food -- Toxicity
    ISSN: Pharmazie in unserer Zeit
    E-ISSN: 1615-1003
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Toxicology Reports, 2018, Vol.5, pp.504-511
    Description: Chemical Carcinogens are compounds which can cause cancer in humans and experimental animals. This property is attributed to many chemicals in the public discussion, resulting in a widespread perception of danger and threat. In contrast, a scientific analysis of the wide and non-critical use of the term ‚carcinogenic’ is warranted. First, it has to be clarified if the compound acts in a genotoxic or non-genotoxic manner. In the latter case, an ineffective (safe) threshold dose without cancer risk can be assumed. In addition, it needs to be investigated if the mode-of-action causing tumors in laboratory animals is relevant at all for humans. In case the compound is clearly directly genotoxic, an ineffective threshold dose cannot be assumed. However, also in this case it is evident that high doses of the compound are generally associated with a high cancer risk, low doses with a lower one. Based on dose-response data from animal experiments, quantification of the cancer risk is carried out by mathematical modeling. If the safety margin between the lowest carcinogenic dose in animals and the relevant level of exposure in humans exceeds 10,000, the degree of concern is classified as low. Cases, where the compound turns out to be genotoxic in one study or one test only but not in others or only but not , are particularly difficult to explain and cause controversial discussions. Also for indirectly genotoxic agents, an ineffective (threshold) dose must be assumed. The situation is aggravated by the use of doubtful epidemiological studies in humans such as in the case of glyphosate, where data from mixed exposure to various chemicals were used. If such considerations are mixed with pure hazard classifications such as ‘probably carcinogenic in humans’ ignoring dose-response behavior and mode-of-action, the misinformation and public confusion are complete. It appears more urgent but also more difficult than ever to return to a scientifically based perception of these issues.
    Keywords: Carcinogenesis ; Chemicals ; Genotoxic ; Risk Assessment ; Public Health
    ISSN: 2214-7500
    E-ISSN: 2214-7500
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Toxicology Reports, 01 January 2018, Vol.5, pp.504-511
    Description: Chemical Carcinogens are compounds which can cause cancer in humans and experimental animals. This property is attributed to many chemicals in the public discussion, resulting in a widespread perception of danger and threat. In contrast, a scientific analysis of the wide and non-critical use...
    Keywords: Public Health
    ISSN: 2214-7500
    E-ISSN: 2214-7500
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2014, Vol.68, p.257(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2014.03.014 Byline: Nicole Raquet, Dieter Schrenk Abstract: acents The photo-cytotoxic, -mutagenic, and -clastogenic properties in V79 cells of thirteen furocoumarins (FCs), were analyzed. acents Nine FC mixtures including one mixture 'representing' FCs in Angelica archangelica extract were tested. acents The concept of relative potency factors for photo-cytotoxicity, -mutagenicity, and -clastogenicity was applicable to all congeners. acents The concept was applied successfully to binary mixtures of 5- and 8-methoxypsoralen and to complex FC mixtures. Article History: Received 9 January 2014; Accepted 7 March 2014
    ISSN: 0278-6915
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: German
    In: BIOspektrum, 2011, Vol.17(2), pp.236-238
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Developmental Biology ; Human Genetics ; Biochemistry, General ; Life Sciences, General ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Microbiology ; Sciences (General);
    ISSN: 0947-0867
    E-ISSN: 1868-6249
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